Chapter 2-Theories and Causes
Terms in this set (30)
failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones
the process of establishing and maintaining an emotional bond with parents or other significant caregiver. this process is ongoing, typically beginning between 6 and 12 months of age, and provides infants with a secure, consistent base from which to explore and learn about their worlds.
a branch of genetics that investigates possible connections between a genetic predisposition and observed behavior
paths made up of clustered neurons that connect one part of the brain to another
a theoretical position for explaining development that proposes that normal and abnormal development changes are gradual and quantitative. theorist argue that developmental is an additive process that is ongoing rather than occurring in distinct stages.
A stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands.
the process by which a child's previous interactions and experiences may spread across other systems and alter his or her course of development, somewhat like a chain reaction
a concept tp describe the sequence and timing of particular behaviors and to highlight the known and suspected relationships of behaviors over time
A theoretical position for explaining development that proposes that normal and abnormal developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative. Discontinuity theorists, such as Piaget and Erikson, argue that children pass through developmental stages that are qualitatively different from each other.
a dimension of emotional processes associated with individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience
the process by which emotional arousal is redirected, controlled, or modified to facilitate adaptive functioning
The underlying biological changes to genetic structure resulting from environmental factors, such as toxins, diet, stress, and many others.
the study of the causes of disorders. with respect to childhood disorders, this considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact
theory that the behavior of an individual can be most accurately understood in the context of the dynamics of his or her family
area of the brain located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities, including memory
Gene Environment Interaction (GxE)
complex interplay of nature and nurture to account for genetic and environmental influences and their timing
an approach to the prevention of disease that involves education, public policy, and similar actions to promote health
Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis
A regulatory system of the brain made up of the hypothalamus control center and the pituitary and adrenal glands; it influences a person's response to stress and his or her ability to regulate emotions.
applies to the assumption that abnormal child behavior is determined by both the child and his or her environment and that these two factors are interconnected
The methods of genetics that directly assess the association between variations in DNA sequences and variations in particular traits. More than an association, variations in genetic sequences are thought to cause the variations in the trait(s). These methods offer more direct support for genetic influences on child psychopathology.
The malleable nature of the brain, evidenced throughout the course of development (use-dependent). Although infants are born with basic brain processes, experience leads to anatomical differentiation. That is, certain synapses of the brain are strengthened and stabilized, while others regress and disappear.
A subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce behavioral differences among siblings living in the same household. this environmental influence can be estimated and is calculated by subtracting the MZ twin correlation from 1.0.
Organization of Development
The assumption that early patterns of adaptation evolve over time and transform into higher-order functions in a structured manner. For instance, infant eye contact and speech sounds evolve and transform into speech and language.
an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates noticeably from the expectations of the individual culture, resulting in clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning
Windows of time during which environmental influences on development (both good and bad) are heightened, thus providing enhanced opportunities to learn.
A subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce similarities in developmental outcomes among siblings living in the same household. If siblings are more similar than expected from only their shared genetics, this implies an effect of the environment both siblings share, such as being exposed to marital conflict or poverty, or being parented in a similar manner.
a construct to describe how people think about themselves in relation to others, and how they interpret ambiguous events and solve problems
a theoretical approach to the study of behavior that is interested in both overt behaviors and the role of possible cognitive mediators that may influence such behaviors directly or indirectly
a child's innate reactivity and self regulation with respect to the domains of emotions, activity level, and attention; the childs organized style of behavior that appears early in development, such as fussiness r fearfulness, that shapes the childs approach to his of her environment, and visa versa.
the process by which the subject and environment interact in a dynamic fashion to contribute to the expression of a disorder
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