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Home Economics Definitions
Home Economics Definitions Leaving Certificate
Terms in this set (33)
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Minimum amount of energy required to maintain body temp. (37'C) and keep the body alive. Calculated at complete rest after fasting. Slows down as you get older.
The function / job of a nutrient in the body.
A lack of a substance / nutrient. It can lead to illness.
A nutrient needed in large amounts (protein, carbohydrate, lipid)
Lack of adequate nutrition - result of lack of nutrition or unbalanced diet.
Chemical substances that are needed in the body for correct functioning
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Amount of each nutrient that is needed to to meet a persons nutritional requirements.
The food that the nutrient is found in.
Smallest part of a protein
Measure of protein quality, number of essential amino acids a food contains, High Biological Value (HBV) Low Biological Value (LBV)
Denaturing a protein (liquid to a solid)
e.g. cooking an egg
Chemical reaction when 2 amino acids join together with the elimination of water. Amino group of one amino acid combines with the carboxyl group of another amino acid.
Globular proteins linked with other non-protein molecules.
Breaking down excess protein in the liver.
Carboxyl group is converted to glycogen and stored as energy. Amino group is converted to ammonia then to urea and excreted as urine.
Irreversible reaction, unfolding of the protein chain, caused by HEAT , ADDITION OF ACID & MECHANICAL ACTION.
Protein are formed as a result of chemical or enzymic action on the protein.
Catalyst that speeds up or slows down a reaction without being used up itself.
Essential Amino Acid
Amino acids that cannot be made in the body and must be obtained from food.
A semi-solid viscous solution with a 3-D network where water molecules become trapped. Gelatine is used as a setting agent.
Protein found in wheat, gives elasticity to foods e.g bread (Coeliacs are allergic to it)
High Biological Value
A food contains all the essential amino acids, also known as a complete protein. Usually comes from animal sources but is found in soya beans.
When 2 or more amino acids break apart due to the addition of a water molecule which splits the peptide link. This happen during digestion.
Protein deficiency, causes dermatitis, retarded growth and a pot belly. Common is 3rd World.
Low Biological Value Protein
Where a food is missing one or more of the essential amino acids. They are usually plant foods.
Colour change which occurs when amino acids and sugar are exposed to dry heat. Also known as non-enzymic browning.
Severe protein deficiency resulting in thin limbs, sunken face and pot belly. Occurs in 3rd World countries.
Peptide Link / Peptide Bond
A link formed during the condensation reaction when the amino group of one amino acid chemically combines with the carboxyl group of another amino acid with the loss of water molecule.
An enzyme made in the ileum which breaks peptides into amino acids.
An enzyme made in the stomach which breaks protein into peptones.
Formed when a number of amino acids join together due to the formation of peptide links.
Enzyme made in the stomach which breaks caesinogen into caesin.
Supplementary Value/ Complementary Value
2 or more proteins are eaten together to supplement each other. Occurs when one protein is lacking in one or more essential amino acids and is eaten with another food which contains the missing essential amino acid. E.g. beans on toast (Beans are high in lysine, low it methionine. Toast is high in methionine, low in lysine.)
An enzyme made in the pancreas that travels to the duodenum and breaks peptones into peptides.
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