142 terms

Civics & Economics SOL Review

Key Vocabulary From Units 1-7
STUDY
PLAY
Consent of the Governed
People are the source of any and all governmental power
Rule of Law
Those who govern are bound by the law
Limited Government
The government is not all powerful and may only do what the people have given it permission to do
Democracy
The people rule
"...a government of the people, by the people, and for the people"
Representative Government
People elect members of Congress and the General assembly to make laws for them and represent them in the government
Charters of the Virginia Company of London
Rights of Englishmen guaranteed to colonists
The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Served as a model for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America
Declaration of Independence
-Stated grievances against the king of Great Britain
-Declared the colonies' independence from Great Britain
-gave people "unalienable rights" (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
-Established the idea that all people are equal under the law
Articles of Confederation
-Established the first form of national government for the states
-gave major powers to states
-national/central government was weak (e.g., no power to tax and enforce laws)
-Led to the writing of the Constitution of the United States of America
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Freedom of religious beliefs and opinions for Virginians
Constitution of the United States of America (Including the Bill of Rights)
-Structure of the United States government
-Guarantees equality under the law with majority rule and the rights of the minority protected
-Affirms individual worth and dignity of all people
-Protects the fundamental freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition (SPRAP)
Citizen
an individual with certain rights and duties under a government and who, by birth or by choice, owes allegiance to that government
Two ways to become a US Citizen
Birth
Naturalization
Two requirements to be naturalized
Demonstrate knowledge of American History and principles
Ability to read, speak and write English
Freedom of Speech
The right to engage in oral, written, and symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
Freedom of the Press
right to publish newspapers, magazines, and other materials without government restriction
Freedom of Religion
people shall be free to have their religion, and government may not establish a religion
Freedom of Assembly
the right to gather with other people in public peacfully.
Freedom of Petition
the right to present requests to the government without punishment.
Ex: Lobbying
Duties
-things you must do
-if you don't do them you will face legal consequences
Responsibilities
-voluntary
-You should do them for the betterment of your community
4 Duties
-Obey laws
-Pay taxes
-Serve in the Armed Forces if called
-Serve on a jury or as a witness if called
Main Responsibilities of Citizens
• Register and vote
• Hold political office
• Communicate with government officials
• Participate in political campaigns
• read or watch news to keep informed of current events
• Respect rights of others
3 types of community service
• Volunteer to support democratic institutions (e.g., League of Women Voters).
• Express concern about the welfare of the community as a whole (e.g., environment, public health and safety, education).
• Help to make the community a good place to work and live (e.g., by becoming involved with public service organizations, tutoring, volunteering in nursing homes).
5 Traits of Good Citizens
• Trustworthiness and honesty
• Courtesy and respect for the rights of others
• Responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance
• Respect for the law
• Patriotism
Trustworthiness
The trait of deserving trust and confidence
Honesty
The quality of being honest
Courtesy
Politeness and kindness
Responsibility
The trait of using self control and acting rationally
Accountability
The trait of being willing to take responsibility for your actions
Self-Reliance
The quality of working hard to do things yourself instead of begging others to do things for you
Patriotism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
1st Amendment
Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition
5th Amendment
NATIONAL Due Process (fair treatement by gov't)
14th Amendment
STATE Due Process (fair treatment by gov't)
Definition of citizenship
16th Amendment
Power to tax
4 Functions of political parties
-Recruit and nominate candidates
-Appeal to voters (electorate)
-Help candidates to win elections
-Monitor the actions of officeholders (Serve as watchdogs)
Two party system
Party system in the US
Third parties
-Introduce new ideas
-Working for major causes
-Revolve around a popular person
-Rarely win elections, but play an important role in politics
4 Similarities of political parties
-Organize to win elections
-Influence public policy
-Reflect both liberal and conservative views
-Appeal to political center (moderate views)
4 Strategies for evaluating campaign info
-Separating fact from opinion
-Detecting bias
-Evaluating sources (taking a close look at something)
-Identifying propaganda
5 Roles of the mass media in campaigns
-Identifying candidates
-Emphasizing selected issues
-Writing political cartoons and editorials
-Publishing op-ed pieces
-Presenting different points of view
Rising campaign costs
• Require candidates to conduct extensive fund-raising activities
• Limit opportunities to run for public office
• Give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office
• Encourage the development of political action committees (PACs)
• Give issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence
Campaign finance reform
• Rising campaign costs have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws.
• Limits exist on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns
Qualifications to register to vote (in VA)
MUST BE:
-A US Citizen
-Resident of VA
-Will be 18 yrs. old by Election Day
22
The minimum number of days before Election Day that you can register
3 Factors that can be used to predict voter turnout (Hint AEI)
-Age
-Education
-Income
Reasons why people don't vote
-Apathy (lack of interest)
-Failure to register
Apathy
Lack of interest, couldn't care less
President and Vice President
Elected leaders that are chosen by the electoral college
Congressional Representation role in the Electoral College
determines a state's number of electoral votes
Winner-Takes-All system
Candidate gets all electoral votes in a state
Justice
Fairness (similar not the same)
Tranquility
Peace
Defense
safety, protection
Welfare
well-being
Posterity
descendants
Establish
create
Insure
guarantee
Domestic
inside the country
Provide
give
Liberty
freedom
Federalism
division of power between the federal, or national, government and the states
Expressed Powers
Listed/Written in the U.S. Constitution for the federal government
Implied Powers
NOT written in the Constitution, but used by the FEDERAL government to carry out Expressed/Enumerated powers
Reserved Powers
Powers that are not give to the national government and reserved for the states. The 10th amendment gives these.
State government/State Constitution
Where the local government gets it's power from
Legislative branch
makes the law - approves, impeaches, makes, overrides vetos
Judicial branch
interprets the law - declares laws unconstitutional
Executive branch
executes the law - vetoes, calls special sessions of congress, appoints, pardons
27
Number of amendments to the US constitution
Congress or Convention
2 ways an amendment can be proposed
State ratification
approval; needed to pass an amendment
10th Amendment
All powers not given to the national government are reserved for the states
Bicameral
Two houses
How a bill becomes a law
Introduced
Working in committees
Debating on the floor
Vote in BOTH houses
Signature from the President or Governor
State of the Union Address
Annual speech by the President about issues in the country (Chief Legislator)
State of the Commonwealth Address
Annual speech by the Governor about issues in the state (Chief Legislator)
Veto
To say no to; dismiss
Bureaucracy
What the Cabinet, Agencies, and Regulatory groups make up
Forum
A place where many people can make public their ideas
Lobbying
Seeking to influence legislators to introduce or vote for or against a bill
Interest groups
Groups that charge members a membership fee. These groups are for a cause and lobby officials to vote whichever way benefits their cause.
Virginia Supreme Court
Virginia Court with justices and no jury.
Limited original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
Virginia Court of Appeals
Virginia court with judges and no jury.
Appellate jurisdiction only.
Virginia Circuit Court
Virginia court with a judge and a jury.
Original jurisdiction for felony cases and civil case over $25000 and appellate jurisdiction.
Virginia District Court
Virginia court with a judge and no jury
Original jurisdiction only (includes Juvenile & Domestic Relations Court
Virginia Juvenile and Domestic Relations court
Virginia court with a judge and no jury
Cases involving juvenile (child) offenders and domestic (family) issues.
U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Court with 9 justices and no jury.
Limited original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
U.S. Court of Appeals
U.S. Court with justices and no jury.
Appellate jurisdiction only.
U.S. District Court
U.S. Court with a judge and a jury.
Original jurisdiction only.
Judicial Review
An important power that the supreme court's of the US and Virginia have. This power allows them to declare laws and executive acts UNCONSTITUTIONAL.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case that established Judicial Review.
U.S. Constitution
The supreme law of the land
Criminal case
Case where it is decided if the accused is guilty of a crime or innocent.
Probable cause
A reason for a police officer to arrest someone. This is necessary for an arrest to take place.
Arraignment
Probable cause is reviewed, defendant may be appointed an attorney, plea is entered.
Appeal
Ask for your case to be reviewd a higher court
Courts look for error or violation of due process
Civil case
Case where court settles disagreements between to parties; law suit
Plaintiff
Person who is suing someone else.
Due process
Government cannot treat you unfairly
Scarcity
the inability to satisfy all wants at the same time. All resources and goods are limited. This requires that choices be made.
Resources
factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services. Types are natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship.
Choice
selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives; picking something
Opportunity Cost
whats given up when you make a choice
Price
amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Supply and demand interacting chooses this.
Incentives
things that motivate and change economic behavior
Ex: 0% Interest, Free Shipping
Supply
amount of a good or service that the producer is willing to provide at a specific price
Demand
number of goods or services the consumers are willing to buy at a specific price
Production
combining of resources to make a good or give a service
Consumption
using goods and services
Free Market Economy
Private Property | Profit | Consumer Sovereignty | Competition
Mixed Economy
most common type of economy today where individuals are in charge of the private sector and the government is in charge of the public sector
Command economy
- Central ownership of property/resources
- Centrally-planned economy
- Lack of consumer choice
U.S. Economy
MIXED
Private property, profit, consumer sovereignty, competition
Private property
Individuals and businesses can own property and resources without unnecessary government interference
Profit
Earnings after all expenses are paid
Consumer sovereignty
Consumers decide price by what the buy
Competition
Rivalry that causes better quality at lower prices
Proprietorship
One owner takes all the risks and gets all the profit. Most popular type of business
Partnership
Two or more own owners share both the risk and the profit.
Corporation
Owners share the profits. Owner liability is limited to investment.
Entrepreneur
Someone who takes a risk and starts a business
Income
Money you make
financial institutions
Banks, savings and loans, credit union, securities brokerages
Interest
Extra money the borrower has to pay the lender when they pay back the money they borrowed
Global Economy
Worldwide markets in which the buying and selling of goods and services by all nations takes place
Efficiency
the quailty of being quick and accurate
Antitrust Legislation
Laws that keep monopolies from being formed.
Public Goods and Services
Individuals could not provide them efficiently. Interstate highways, postal service, etc.
Tax revenue
the money a government gains from the collection of taxes
Government Tax Increases
Causes money available for personal and business spending to go down.
Government Tax Decreases
Causes money available for personal and business spending to go up
Increased Government Borrowing
Causes money available for people and businesses to borrow to go down
Decreased Government Borrowing
Causes money available for people and businesses to borrow to go up
Increased Government Spending
Increase in demand, employment, production, and taxes
Decreased Government Spending
Decrease in demand, employment, production, and taxes
Federal Reserve
The banker's bank that tries to keep the economy stable
Contracts
legal agreements between buyers and sellers
self assessment
when you learn about ones self by looking at work values interests attitudes, abilities, and personality traits
work ethic
a commitment to the value of work and purposeful activity
The amendment process is very ___
complex
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