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The primary emphasis of the progressive movement was on:

strengthening government as an instrument of socail betterment

Prominent among those who aroused the progessive movement by stirring the public's sense of concern were:

socialists,social gospelers, women, and muckraking journalists

Most progressives were

urban middle-class people

Among the political reforms sought by the progressives were

initiative and referendum, direct election of senators, and women's suffrage

The states where progessivism first gained great influence were

Wisconsin, Oregon, and California

The Supreme Court case of Muller vs. Oregon was seen as a victory for both progressivism and women's rights because:

it upheld the constitutionality of laws granting special protection to women in the workplace

Roosevelt ended the Pennsylvania coal strike by:

forcing mediation by threatening to seize the coal mines and operate them with federal troops

The Roosevelt-backed Elkins Act and Hepburn Act were aimed at:

more effective regulation of the railroad industry

The controversy over the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park revealed

a philosphocial disagreement between wilderness "preservationists" and more moderate "conservationists"

Two areas where Roosevelt's progressivism made its substantial headway were

consumer and conservation legislation

Roosevelt was blamed for the "panic of 1907" because

his "boat-rocking tactics" had allegedly unsettled industry

As a result of his successful campaign in 1908, William Howard Taft was expected to

continue and extend Roosevelt's progressive policies

Progressive Republicans grew disillusioned with Taft primarily over the issues of:

trust-busting, tariffs, and conservation

Roosevelt finally decided to break with the Republicans and form a third party because:

Taft used his control of the Republicans convention to deny Roosevelt the nomination

A largely middle-class movement that aimed to use the power of government to correct the economic and social problems of industrialism


Popular journalists who used publicity to expose corruption and attack abuses of power in business and government


Progressive proposal to allow voters to bypass state legislatures and propose legislation themselves


Prossive device that would enable voters to remove corrupt or ineffective officials from office


Roosevelt's policy of having the federal government promote te public interest by dealing evenhandedly with both labor and business

Square Deal

Effective railroad-regulation law of 1906 that greatly strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission

Hepburn Act

Disastrous industrial fire of 1911 that spurred workmen's compensation laws and some state regulation of wages and hours in New York

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Upton Sinclair's novel that inspirited proconsumer federal laws regulating meat, food, and drugs

"The Jungle"

Powerful women's reform organization led by Frances Willard

Women's Christian Temperance Union

Brief but sharp economic downturn of 1907, blamed by conservatives on the supposedly dangerous president

Roosevelt Panic (of 1907)

Generally unsuccessful Taft foreign policy in which government attempted to encourage overseas business ventures

dollar diplomacy

Powerful corporation broken up by a Taft-initiated antitrust suit in 1911

Standard Oil Company

Eccentric economist who criticized the wealthy for "conspicuous consumption" and failure to serve real human needs. "The Tehory of Leisure Class"

Thorstein Veblen

Early muckraker who eposed the political corruption in many American cities in McClure's. "The Shame of the Cities". He fearlessly unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.

Lincoln Steffens

Leading muckraking journalist whose articles documented the Standard Oil Company's abuse of power

Ida Tarbell

Progressive measure that required US senators to be elected directly by the people rather than by state legislatures

17th Amendment

The most influential of the state-level progressive governors and a presidential aspirant in 1912. Most militant of the progressive Republican leaders.

Robert La Follette

New York City disaster that underscored urban workers' need for government protection

Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire

Dangerous labor conflict resolved by Rooseveltian negotiation and threats against business people

Anthracite coal strike

Progressive law aimed at curbing practices like those exposed in Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"

Meat Inspection Act of 1906

Case that upheld protective legislation on the grounds of women's supposed physical weakness

Muller v. Oregon

Poltically inept inheritor of the Roosevelt legacy who ended up allied with the reactionary Republican "Old Guard"

William Howard Taft

Supreme court ruling that overturned a progressive law mandating a ten-hour work day

Lochner v. New York

Proconservation federal official whose dismissal by Taft angered Roosevelt progressives. Chief of Agriculture Department's Division of Forestry and a stalwart Rooseveltian.

Gifford Pinchot

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