Ch. 3 - Chemical Building Blocks of Life
Terms in this set (107)
What do organic molecule consist of?
Carbon bonded with Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfer
How many covalent bonds can carbon form?
4 covalent bonds
Of what are hydrocarbons only composed of?
Carbon and hydrogen bonds
What is the most simple hydrocarbon?
What is non-polar and hydrophobic?
What are monomers?
small, similar chemical subunits
What are monomers joined together to form?
What do we call polymers?
What is a carbohydrates polymer?
What is carbohydrates monomer?
What is nucleic acids monomer?
What is nucleic acids polymer?
What is a proteins polymer?
What is a proteins monomer?
What is a lipids monomer?
What is a lipids polymer?
How are polymers formed?
dehydration synthesis, loss of water molecule, looses H and HO
How are polymers broken down?
What are some examples of carbohydrates?
sugars, starches, and glucose
What is the ratio for carbohydrates?
1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen
What are good energy storage molecules?
What covalent bonds hold a lot of energy?
Carbon - Hydrogen covalent bonds
What are the most simple carbohydrate?
What are disaccharides?
two monosaccharides linked via dehydration synthesis
What are disaccharides used for?
sugar transport or energy storage, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose
What are polysaccharides?
long chains of monosaccharides linked through dehydration synthesis
What are functions of polysaccharides?
energy storage and structural support
What do plants use starch and animals use glycogen for?
Energy storage - they are a polysaccharide
What do plants use cellulose and arthropods and fungi use chitin for?
Structural support - they are a polysaccharide
What are the parts of a nucleic acids molecular structure?
Phosphate group, nitrogenous base, and 5 carbon sugar
What is the sugar in DNA?
What is the sugar in RNA?
What are the nitrogenous bases?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil
How are nucleotides connected?
What encodes information for amino acid sequence of proteins in the sequence of bases - genes?
What is the shape of DNA?
What is the double helix?
2 polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen bonds
What are Chargaff's base pairing rules?
Adenine = Thymine
Guanine = Cytosine
What are between the nitrogenous bases in DNA?
What is the difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA contains ribose and DNA contains deoxyribose
RNA has Uracil and DNA has Thymine
What type of polypeptide strand does RNA have?
a single polypeptide strand
What does RNA use DNA to do?
To specify sequence of amino acids in proteins
What do monomers of amino acids create?
What is the amino acids molecular structure?
Central carbon atom
Variable R group that determines protein function
What determines a proteins function?
the R group
What are the functions of proteins?
What are amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis?
What is the primary protein structure?
sequence of amino acids
What is the secondary protein structure?
Interactions of groups in the peptide backbone.
-beta pleated sheet
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
final folded shape of a globular protein
What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
arrangement of 2 or more polypeptide chains
What can be denatured?
What can cause proteins to lose their structure, impacting their overall function?
What are environmental conditions that cause denaturation?
Ionic concentration of solution
What are lipids defined of?
Group of molecules with one main chemical characteristic: hydrophobic - water insoluble
What do hydrophobic lipids result in?
A high proportion of non-polar C-H bonds
What are fats, oils, waxes, some vitamins, and hormones?
What are triglycerides made of?
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What form hydrocarbon chains?
What is a macromolecule the same in?
All four groups of organic molecules: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
What do we know when we hear saccharide?
We are dealing with a carbohydrate
What do we know when we hear peptide?
We are dealing with a protein
What does lysis mean?
What is the simplest carbohydrate?
What is always in a ring structure?
What is carbs role in the body?
What typically have 6 carbon sugars but sometime 5?
What are nucleotides joined by?
What always has a nitrogenous base containing nitrogen?
Where is DNA found?
nucleus of a cell
Where does DNA hold instructions for the cell?
in nitrogenous bases
Why are phosphodiester bonds stronger then hydrogen bonds?
Because they are a covalent bond
What can fold upon itself?
What are the most diverse organic molecules?
What do enzymes do?
catalysts, speed up chemical reactions, most are proteins
What is the defense function of proteins?
The immune system
What is the transport function of proteins?
hemoglobin delivers oxygen
What is the support function of proteins?
muscles and cytoskeleton
What is the motion function of proteins?
What is the regulation function of proteins?
cell cycle and metabolic reactions
What is the storage function of proteins?
breaks down proteins for energy
What is important to determine the protein function?
Its 3D shape
What happens when a protein unfolds in the brain?
it stops blood flow and other functions
What type of organic molecule does not have a uniform shape?
What type of organic molecule is hydrophobic?
What type of molecule has a high proportion of C-H bonds?
How are triglycerides formed?
by 1 glycerol linking to 3 fatty acids via dehydration synthesis
What type of lipid is a fat cell an example of?
What do saturated triglycerides always have?
A single bond, they are more compact
What type of bond does an unsaturated triglyceride have?
a double bond, they change shape
What does a trans fat do?
It takes something that is saturated and makes it unsaturated or vise versa
What type of triglyceride is more loose and does not clod arteries?
an unsaturated triglyceride
How is margarine made?
by taking an unsaturated fat and making it saturated
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated triglycerides?
saturated triglycerides are single bonded
unsaturated triglycerides are double bonded
How are phospholipids formed?
by connecting glycerol to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
What form all cell membranes?
What provides a water proof barrier in the cell?
Why can a cell have a different environment inside the membrane?
bilayer because of the waterproof barrier provided by the phospholipid bilayer
What aids in compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells?
How do phospholipid bilayers move?
What do vesicles contain?
protein and maybe ions
What move materials in cells?
In dehydration synthesis, what are A, B, and C?
A and B are the products and C is the end result
What is hydrogeneration?
turning a unsaturated fat to a saturated fat
How do plants store energy?
How do animals store energy?
What are made up of multiple polypeptides?
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