Revolution lead-up and early republic 2017
Terms in this set (54)
Intolerable Acts (1774)
passed by Parliament in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. included shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act. This resulted in the colonists forming the First Continental Congress and drawing up a declaration of colonial rights.
Stamp Act (1765)
law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Sugar Act (1764)
British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Tea Act (1773)
eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
"no taxation without representation"
writs of assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
Townshend Acts (1767)
placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Proclamation Line (1763)
Order by the British king that closed the region west of the Appalachian Mountains to all settlement by colonists
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Committees of Correspondence - 1772
organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Committees of Observation - 1774
created after First Continental Congress to enforce boycott on British goods. became the town's "de facto" governments.
Common Sense (1776)
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
First Continental Congress (1774)
response to Intolerable Acts; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
Second Continental Congress (1775)
opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain
Lexington and Concord (1775)
Gage lead soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Boston "Massacre" (1770)
street clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British custom houses.
A schooner was beached in Providence, RI, This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. It was burned down by local inhabitants. It greatly angered the British and showed how militant the colonials were becoming.
2nd Treatise on Government
The Second Treatise of Government places sovereignty into the hands of the people. Locke's fundamental argument is that people are equal and invested with natural rights (rights of "life, liberty, and property")
Jefferson used Natural Rights in the declaration of Independence and he gave his appeal universality by invoking "natural rights" not just British rights. (life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness)
Galloway Plan of Union (1774)
Suggestion by Joseph Galloway of Pennsylvania for an American national assembly to be led by a royally appointed president to serve as the American branch of Parliament; rejected by congressional vote (rejected by 1st continental congress)
an American who favored the British side during the American Revolution
Necessity of Taking Up Arms (1775)
document stated that the colonists were ready to fight,issued by the 2nd Continental Congress
Declaration of Independence (1776)
statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain (Thomas Jefferson)
letter from a Pennsylvania Farmer (1767-68)
written by John Dickinson; protested against the Townshend Acts and questioned the right of Parliament to levy "external" duties to raise revenue in the colonies.
Currency Act (1764)
Stopped colonial printing of paper money & forced colonists to pay in gold and silver
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
"No taxation without representation"
claimed taxes were unjust, insisted only they or their elected reps had the right to pass taxes, parliament had no right ot tax them since they didnt elect reps, and they were willing to pay taxes only if their colonial legislatures passed them.
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds,fought at Lexington and Concord in 1775
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Battle of Saratoga (1777)
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support.
Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet.
Lord Dunsmore's Proclamation
declared martial law and promised freedom for slaves of American Patriots who left their masters and joined the royal forces, didn't work
A nickname of a woman (amalgam), or an image representing a group of women, who was said to have fought in the Battle of Monmouth, an American Revolutionary War fought in New Jersey
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the home front. She urged her husband to "remember the ladies" in the new government he was helping to create.
women should decide what's in their own interest, only education could given women tools they need to compete with men (A Vindication of the Rights of Woman)
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
: Written by Thomas Jefferson and passed by the Virginia General Assembly. It was a principle of the separation of church and state, and an example of the first amendment, freedom of religion.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers, pro vided for free public education
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Shays Rebellion (1786-87)
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
a slave girl brought to Boston at age eight and never formally educated; she was taken to England when, at twenty years of age, she published a book of verse and later wrote other polished poems that revealed the influence of Alexander Pope
George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
Great Compromise (1787)
between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators.
3/5 Compromise (1787)
between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.