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EDBE 3470 Final
Terms in this set (59)
4 basic language abilites
Someone who is equally fluent in two languages
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
The function of LPAC
Identification and placement (determining the appropriate programs for students indentified as ELLS)
1973 Texas State Law
When there are 20 or more students in one grade that speak a language other than english, a bilingual program must be offered to them.
Myths of Second Language Acquisition
1. Teachers should be concerned about newly arrived ELLs who do not speak any English after 6 months.
2. When ELLs can speak English fluently on the playground, they should be able to master their academic work.
3. Children can learn a language faster than an adult can.
4. Only the target language should be spoken at home.
Factors the encourage the language loss (Political, Social, and Demographic)
1. Small numbers of speakers well dispersed.
2. Long and stable residence.
3. Homeland remote or inaccessible.
4. Low rate of return to homeland and/or little intention to return and/or impossible to return.
5. Homeland language community decaying in vitality.
6. Occupational shift, especially from rural to urban areas.
7. Employment requires use of the majority language.
8. High social and economic mobility in main occupations.
9. High levels of education giving social and vocational mobility. Potential community leaders are alienated from their language community by education.
10. Ethnic identity is denied to achieve social and vocational mobility; this is forced by nativism, racism and ethnic discrimination.
Factors that encourage language maintenance (Political, social, and demographic)
1. Large number of speakers living closely together.
2. Recent and/or continuing in-migration.
3. Close proximity to the homeland and ease of travel to the homeland.
4. Preference to return to homeland with many actually returning.
5. Homeland language community intact.
6. Stability in occupation.
7. Employment available where home language is spoken daily.
8. Low social and economic mobility in main occupations.
9. Low level of education to restrict social and economic mobility, but educated and articulate community leaders loyal to their language community.
10. Ethnic group identity rather than identity with majority language community via nativism, racism and ethnic discrimination.
Factors the encourage the language loss (Cultural)
1. Lack of mother tongue institutions.
2. Cultural and religious activity in the majority language.
3. Ethnic language defined by factors other than language.
4. Few nationalistic aspirations.
5. Mother tongue not the only homeland national language, or mother tongue spans several nations.
6. Self identity derived from factors other than shared home language.
7. Low emphasis on family and community ties. High emphasis on individual achievement.
8. Emphasis on education in minority language.
9. Acceptance of majority language.
10. Culture and religion similar to that of the majority language.
Factors that encourage language maintenance (Cultural)
1. Mother tongue institutions.
2. Cultural and religious ceremonies in the home language.
3. Ethnic identity strongly tied to home language.
4. Nationalistic aspirations as a language group.
5. Mother tongue the homeland national language.
6. Emotional attachment to mother tongue giving self-identity and ethnicity.
7. Emphasis on family ties and cohesion.
8. Emphasis on education in mother tongue schools to enhance ethnic awareness.
9. Low emphasis on education if in majority language.
10. Culture unlike majority language.
Factors that encourage language loss (Linguistic)
1. Mother tongue is non-standard and/or not in written form.
2. Use of writing system which is expensive to reproduce and relatively difficult to learn.
3. Home language of little or no international importance.
4. Illiteracy (or aliteracy) in the home language.
5. No tolerance of new terms from majority language; or too much tolerance of land words leading to mixing and eventual language loss,
Factors that encourage language maintenance (Linguistic)
1. Mother tongue is standardized and exists in a written forms.
2. Use of an alphabet which makes printing and literacy relatively easy.
3. Home language had international status.
4. Home language literacy used in community and with homeland.
5. Flexibility in the development of the home language (e.g. limited use of new terms from the majority language.)
Example of Language Resurrection
The example in the book is of Manx Gaelic. The language is spoken on one island, in Scotland, and in Ireland. At one point, schools banned the use of this language. Thus the language began to decline. However, when surveyed for the census years later, it was discovered that there was a rise in native speakers. This rise was due to the fact that children's parents (who were fluent in Manx) were speaking to them in it at home, therefore the children were learning the language and it was resurrected.
Simultaneous Childhood Bilingualism
A form of childhood bilingualism where a child learns two or more languages at the same time.
Sequential Childhood Bilingualism
A form of childhood bilingualism where a child learns one language first, then another.
What did the researcher find about infants acquiring two or more languages from birth?
Children can show discrimination between multiple languages from very early on. They are not confuse, and know what language to speak when talking to different people.
Categories of early childhood bilingualism
1. One Person- One Language
2. Home Language differs from Language Outside the Home
3. Mixed Language
4. Delayed introduction of the second language
Shifting back and forth between languages in the same conversation.
A word from an alternate language is used within a given sentence
Negative outcomes of using children as translators
Pressure is placed on children, Children may be hearing information that they are not mature enough for yet, Children may be expected to act like an adult when translating, Stress/fear/uncertainty, Children may begin to despise the language, unclear translations
Positive outcomes of using children as translators
Parental praise, Children learn adult information and can act quickly with authority and trust, Children learn to take the initiative, Draws the family closer (if interpreting for a family member), Enhanced cognitive values, Character formation
Wanting to learn a language for the purpose of obtaining some concrete goals such as a job, graduation, or the ability to read academic materials. This form of motivation is thought to be less likely to lead to success than integrative motivation.
want to learn the language because it will enable them to socialize an dinteract effectively with native speakers.
Cognitive advantages of bilingualism
Bilingual children have been shown to have:
1. better metalinguistic awareness (ability to identify and describe characteristics and features of language);
2. better classification skills;
3. better concept formation;
4. better analogical reasoning;
5. better visual-spatial skills;
6. better storytelling skills;
7. better semantic development.
The Balance Theory
The more one skill or language increases, the more the second skill or language decreases.
The Iceberg Analogy
The two languages (or subjects) appear completely different on the surface, but when further examined share some of the same foundation
The Threshold Theory
1.Child can avoid the negative consequences of bilingualism.
2. Child can experience the positive benefits of bilingualism.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: surface skills students pick up in 1-2 years of being around native L2 speakers
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills,the development of the academic language needed for success in school.
Number of years it takes to acquire BICS
Number of years it takes to acquire CALPS
What caused the attitude shift on bilingualism?
-Rising number of immigrants
-World War 1
-Idea of Americanization
Meyer vs. Nebraska
(1923) Stopped laws that said you could not teach a foreign language in school it instiuted tolerance of other languages
Outcomes of Sputnik
-Debates on the quality of US Education, US scientific creativity, and US competence to compete in an increasingly international world. National Defense and Education Act was established promoting foreign language learning in elementary schools, high schools, and universities.
The first model Dual Language School
Civil Rights Act of 1964—forbids discrimination based on sex, race, color, national origin, or religion.
Bilingual Education Act
Law that provided federal assistance to school districts for developing bilingual education programs
Lau vs. Nichols
(1974) The United States Supreme Court decision which found the San Francisco Board of Education failing in the duty of providing equal access to education of Chinese speaking students. The decision mandates that states address the unique language needs of the second language learner.
Guidelines that the government set for school districts acknowledging that students not proficient in English needed help. This spawned the creation of classes like ESL, English tutoring, and some forms of Bilingual Education.
(1998) bans bilingual education in California. Requires that all English Language Learners in a 1 year program.
Castaneda v. Pickard
1981 - set the standard for the courts in examining programs for LEP students -- accountability for ESL programs
1. pedgaogically sound plan for LEP students
2. qualified staff to implement plan
3. system established to evaluate the program
** doesn't require bilingual education
Submersion/Sink or Swim
Submersion contain the idea of a language minority student thrown into the deep end and expected to learn to swim as quickly as possible without the help of floats or special swimming lessons. The minority student will be taught all day in the majority language, often alongside fluent speakers.
Students are taught in mainstream classrooms and "pulled out" for an allotted time to learn English.
Content Based ESL
Students are taught part of the curriculum through English and not just the language English.
Transitional Bilingual Education (Early Exit)
L1 and sheltered subject-matter instruction; daily ESL; initial literacy usually in L1; teachers certified in BE, proficient in L1 and L2
Developmental Bilingual Education (Late Exit)
L1 and sheltered subject-matter instruction; daily ESL; initial literacy in L1; teachers certified in BE, proficient in L1 and L2; parents involved
Two Way Bilingual Education
Dual Language bilingual education in the US typically occurs when approximately equal numbers of language minority and language majority students are in the same classroom and both languages are used for instruction.
Where minority students are taught the curriculum with a simplified vocabulary but also purpose made materials and methods-but only in English.
Planned and systematic use of two languages inside the same classroom.
According to Collier, how long will it take second language speakers of English in submersion schooling to reach the language proficiency of native speakers?
They must make 15 months of progress for each 10 months of progress the native speaker makes. (7 to 10 years or more)
Use of Mother Tongue, and Why it is important.
-Psychologically: it is the system of meaningful signs that in his mind works automatically for the expression and understanding.
-Sociologically: it is a means of identification among the members of the community to which he belongs.
-Educationally: he learns more quickly through it than through an unfamiliar linguistic medium.
Guidance to Independence.
- I do, We do, You do.
- Vygotsky argued that student learning occurs when the present level of understanding of a child is moved to a further level that with the child's capability.
When children will speak their first language to each other and to their teacher without any objection or reprimand.
Using different things to help students learn. (Hand gestures).
-Simplified grammar and syntax.
Dr. Pardon's article on 5 effective strategies
1.) Culturally-Responsive Teaching.
2.) Cooperative Learning.
3.) Instructional Conversations.
4.) Cognitively-Guided Instructions.
5.) Technology-Enriched Instructions.
Funds of Knowledge (examples)
Any knowledge that derives from outside of school, not just in the home, and concerns how such knowledge is constructed, revised, maintained, and shared.
- Cultural practices and bodies of knowledge and information that households use to survive.
Parental Involvement (difference between traditional and CLD family) (article)
Measures between the performance of groups of students.
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