How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

128 terms

ap psych ch 6/7/8

STUDY
PLAY
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, such as the cocktail party effect
Necker cube
a figure that illustrates the phenomenon of selective attention
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
gestalt
an organized whole; emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
figure-ground
the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
continuity
the organization of stimuli into smooth, continuous patterns
closure
the principle that we fill in gaps to create a whole, complete object
proximity
the grouping of items that are close to each other
similarity
the grouping of items that look alike
connectedness
the tendency to perceive uniform or attached items as a single unit
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
retinal disparity
a binocular clue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the difference between the two images, the closer the object
convergence
a binocular clue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes turn inward when looking at an object - the greater the inward strain, the closer the object
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
relative size
we tend to perceive images that are smaller as farther away
interposition
if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
relative clarity
we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects
relative height
we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away
relative motion
as we move, objects at different distances appear to move at different rates
linear perspective
the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
light and shadow
nearer objects reflect more light to our eyes than farther objects
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, size) even as illumination and retinal images change
shape constancy
perceiving the form of familiar objects as constant even when our retinal images of them change
size constancy
perceiving objects as having a constant size, even when our distance from them varies
relative luminance
the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings
lightness constancy
we perceive objects as having constant lightness even when their illumination varies
color constancy
we perceive objects as having a constant hue relative to surrounding objects
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
human factors psychology
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
extrasensory perception
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
biological rhythms
periodic psychological fluctuations
annual cycle
geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate and humans may experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep length and moods on this cycle
28 day cycle
the female menstrual cycle is this cycle
24 hour cycle
humans experience varying alertness, body temperature and growth hormone secretion on this cycle
90 minute cycle
animals move through various stages of sleep on this cycle
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
suprachiasmatic nucleus
the cluster of cells that controls the circadian clock
REM sleep
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur; also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
sleep
the periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anaesthesia, or hibernation
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of a visual stimulus
sleep spindles
bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sweep
slow-wave sleep
stages 3 and 4 of sleep are referred to stages of ...
free radicals
molecules that are toxic to neurons
insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, occurs during stage 4 sleep within 2-3 hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered
dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind; notable for hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
age regression
the supposed ability to relive childhood experiences`
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
addiction
compulsive drug craving and use
neuroadaptation
the brain adapts its chemistry to offset the effect of a drug
depressants
drugs, such as alcohol, barbituates and opiates, that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
stimulants
drugs, such as caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine and ecstasy, that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
opiates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy/mood changes
methamphetamine
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
ecstasy
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen; produces euphoria and social intimacy but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
hallucinogens
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as lysergic acid diethylamide
THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects including mild hallucinations
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness experienced after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
dualism
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
monism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
conditioning
the process of learning associations
behaviorism
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
also known as a Skinner box; a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
discriminative stimulus
a stimulus that signals that a response will be reinforced
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform behavior for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
instinctive drift
when animals revert to their biologically predisposed patterns
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or observing another doing so; may enable language learning, imitation and empathy
memes
transmitted cultural elements
prosocial
positive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior