AQA GCSE Geography: Coastal management+case study
Terms in this set (13)
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Hard engineering strategies+ examples
Man-made structures built to control flow of the sea and reduce flooding and erosion: Sea wall, rock armour, Groynes
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Sea wall
Wall of HARD MATERIAL (Concrete) REFLECTS WAVES back to sea. PREVENTS EROSION+ acts as BARRIER to PREVENT FLOODING. Creates STRONG BACKWASH ERODES UNDER the wall. EXPENSIVE to build and maintain.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Rock armour
BOULDERS piled up along coast. ABSORB WAVE ENERGY so REDUCE EROSION+FLOODING. CHEAP. Can be moved around by STRONG WAVES- need to be REPLACED.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Groynes
Wooden or stone FENCES built at RIGHT ANGLES to coast. Trap material from LONGSHORE DRIFT. Create WIDER BEACHES which SLOWS WAVES- greater protection from EROSION+FLOODING. Fairly CHEAP. STARVE BEACHES further down coast- making them narrower (less protection).
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Soft engineering strategies and examples
Schemes set up using knowledge of sea and its processes to reduce effects of flooding and erosion: Beach nourishment, Dune regeneration, marsh creation, managed retreat.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Beach nourishment
Sand and shingle from ELSEWHERE ADDED to beaches. Creates WIDER BEACHES which slows waves-greater protection. Taking material from seabeds can KILL ORGANISMS (sponges+corals). VERY EXPENSIVE+ needs to be REPEATED.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Dune regeneration
Creating or restoring SAND DUNES by NOURISHMENT OR PLANTING VEGETATION to STABILISE sand. Provide BARRIER between sand and sea. WAVE ENERGY ABSORBED PREVENTS FLOODING and EROSION. STABILISATION CHEAP. Protection only SMALL AREA. NOURISHMENT EXPENSIVE.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Marsh creation
Planting VEGETATION in MUDFLATS along coast. Vegetation STABILISES MUDLFATS to REDUCE SPEED WAVES. Creates NEW HABITATS for organisms. Not useful where EROSION RATES HIGH since marsh can't ESTABLISH ITSELF. FAIRLY EXPENSIVE.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Case Study
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Defences at Bridlington
4.7km sea wall and groynes
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Defences at Hornsea
Sea wall, wooden groynes and rock armour to protect village from erosion+flooding.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Defences at Withernsea
Groynes and sea wall. Rock armour placed in front of wall 1992 after damaged in SEVERE STORMS.
COASTAL MANAGEMENT: Problems caused by defences
-Groynes make beaches narrower down coast so increases erosion there- COWDEN FARM ,SOUTH MAPLETON
-SPURN HEAD risk of being ERODED AWAY since LESS MATERIAL ADDED TO IT.
-BAYS forming between protected areas, becoming headlands which ERODED MORE HEAVILY. Means maintaining defences in protected area more expensive.
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