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68 terms

Demography Ch 1-4

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demography
scientific study of human populations
population processes
the levels and trends in fertility, mortality, and migration
population structure
how many males and females there are of each age
urban ecology
4 variables that affect each other: population, technology, environment, organization
demographics
practical applications of population information
geodemographics , geodemography, spatial demography
the analysis of demographic data that takes into account the location of people being studied
apportionment
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
redistricting
the reconfiguration of Congressional districts that each seat will represent
gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
marketing demographics
demographics are employed to segment and target the market for a product
segmentation
the manufacturing and packaging of products or the provision of services that appeal to specific sociodemographically identifiable groups within the population
targeting
picking out particular sociodemographic characteristics of people who might purchase what you have to offer, then appealing to the consumer tastes and behavior reflected in those particular characteristics
agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
industrial revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
population explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by accelerating rates of increase
rule of 69
Doubling time = 69 / annual growth rate (in %) *if growth rate is negative, result gives number of years to halve population
population implosion
a rapid reduction of population that reverses a previous trend toward progressively larger populations
natural increase
excess of births over deaths (as opposed to in-migration)
demographic perspective
a way of relating basic information to theories about how the world operates demographically
demographic theories
study table 3.1
mercantilism
a nation's wealth was determined by the amount of precious metals it had in its possession, which were acquired by exporting more goods than it imported; Europe 1600's
John Graunt
Father of Demography; analyzed series of Bills of Mortality in 1662 - 1st known statistical analysis of demographic data
Malthusian Principle of Population
Human society will not reach perfection because the population will continue to increase while the food supply will be unable to keep up with this growth
checks to growth
factors that have kept population growth from reaching its biological potential
positive checks
something of the moral or physical nature that prematurely weakens or destroys the human frame
preventative checks
limits to birth
Malthusian consequence of population growth
Poverty and misery - population demand precedes the need for labor so that there are more people than jobs.
means of subsistence
amount of land available, the technology that can be applied to it, and social organization (land ownership patterns)
Critiques of Malthus
Moral restraint and potential of technology
prudential restraint
NeoMalthusian; waiting to marry and reproduce, but not necessarily waiting to have sex
Marx
Every society in history has its own population laws that determine the consequences of population growth. Capitalism consequences of population growth are overpopulation and poverty. Socialism absorbs population growth into the economy.
Critiques of Marx
socialism is the antithesis of capitalism - implies birth rates should be high in socialism, but had no guidelines for controlling population growth
Mill
Standard of living is major determinant of fertility levels, but people can influence their own demographic destinies
Dumont
Social capillarity induces people to limit their number of children in order to get ahead socially and economically
Social capillarity
Desire of people to rise on the social scale, to increase their individuality as well as personal wealth
Durkheim
Consequences of population growth - higher levels of innovation and specialization; complex societies.
3 stages of demographic transition
High growth potential, transitional growth, incipient decline
modernization
transition from traditional societies with high BR and DR to industrial societies with low BR and DR
rational choice theory
human behavior is the result of individuals doing what will benefit them
wealth flow
Used to be from children to parents, reverses after urban transition
family and household transition
postponement of marriage, rise in single living, cohabitation, and prolonged residence in parental household
Demographic transition as set of transitions
health and mortality transition, fertility trans, age trans, migration trans, urban trans, family and household trans
Age transition
Society is young. After mortality decline, society gets younger. After fertility decline, less children, then bulge of pop is young working age. Then bulge of society is older and needs care.
Demographic Change and Response
People must perceive a personal need to change behavior before a decline in fertility will take place, and that the kind of response they will make will depend on what means are available to them.
When was the first US Census?
1790
Domesday Book
1086.
Census
most widely known and used source of demographic information; shows population size, distribution, age structure, characteristics
De facto population
people who are in a given territory on census day
De jure population
people who legally "belong" to a given area in some way even if they are not present on census day.
usual residence
the place where a person usually sleeps
Nonsampling error
includes coverage error and content error; most errors in census come from nonsampling error
coverage error
aka net census undercount = combination of undercount and overcount
differential undercount
some groups are more likely to be underenumerated than other groups
demographic analysis
uses demographic balancing equation to measure coverage error; compare to previous census
demographic balancing equation
population at time 2 = population at time 1 + births - deaths + in-migrants - out-migrants; uses combination of census data and vital registration data (and administrative data)
Dual system estimation
comparing census results with another source of information about the people counted (surveys)
content error
problems with the accuracy of the data obtained in the census.
Sampling error
differences exist between the characteristics of the population and the sample population
continuous measurement
American Community Survey - rolling survey of 3 million Americans each year; replacement for the long form
registration of vital events
births, deaths, marriages, divorces, abortions.
population registers
lists of all people in the country and their vital events
administrative data
Useful even if not gathered for demographic data; includes immigration records, IRS records, social security records, school enrollment records; particularly useful for local population changes and migration
Current Population Survey
monthly survey since 1943; focus on labor force
American Community Survey
monthly survey since 1996; used for more detailed information about households; replaced census long form in 2010
Historical Sources
church records (especially in Europe), local records, cemeteries, family genealogy
Geographic Information Systems
computer-based system that allows us to combine maps with data and then to analyze those data using spatial statistics, and show results in a type of map or other graphic format
Sample surveys
sources of information for places in which census or vital registration data do not exist or where reliable information can be obtained less expensively by sampling than by conducting a census