geodemographics , geodemography, spatial demography
the analysis of demographic data that takes into account the location of people being studied
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
the manufacturing and packaging of products or the provision of services that appeal to specific sociodemographically identifiable groups within the population
picking out particular sociodemographic characteristics of people who might purchase what you have to offer, then appealing to the consumer tastes and behavior reflected in those particular characteristics
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by accelerating rates of increase
rule of 69
Doubling time = 69 / annual growth rate (in %) *if growth rate is negative, result gives number of years to halve population
a rapid reduction of population that reverses a previous trend toward progressively larger populations
a way of relating basic information to theories about how the world operates demographically
a nation's wealth was determined by the amount of precious metals it had in its possession, which were acquired by exporting more goods than it imported; Europe 1600's
Father of Demography; analyzed series of Bills of Mortality in 1662 - 1st known statistical analysis of demographic data
Malthusian Principle of Population
Human society will not reach perfection because the population will continue to increase while the food supply will be unable to keep up with this growth
something of the moral or physical nature that prematurely weakens or destroys the human frame
Malthusian consequence of population growth
Poverty and misery - population demand precedes the need for labor so that there are more people than jobs.
means of subsistence
amount of land available, the technology that can be applied to it, and social organization (land ownership patterns)
NeoMalthusian; waiting to marry and reproduce, but not necessarily waiting to have sex
Every society in history has its own population laws that determine the consequences of population growth. Capitalism consequences of population growth are overpopulation and poverty. Socialism absorbs population growth into the economy.
Critiques of Marx
socialism is the antithesis of capitalism - implies birth rates should be high in socialism, but had no guidelines for controlling population growth
Standard of living is major determinant of fertility levels, but people can influence their own demographic destinies
Social capillarity induces people to limit their number of children in order to get ahead socially and economically
Desire of people to rise on the social scale, to increase their individuality as well as personal wealth
Consequences of population growth - higher levels of innovation and specialization; complex societies.
transition from traditional societies with high BR and DR to industrial societies with low BR and DR
family and household transition
postponement of marriage, rise in single living, cohabitation, and prolonged residence in parental household
Demographic transition as set of transitions
health and mortality transition, fertility trans, age trans, migration trans, urban trans, family and household trans
Society is young. After mortality decline, society gets younger. After fertility decline, less children, then bulge of pop is young working age. Then bulge of society is older and needs care.
Demographic Change and Response
People must perceive a personal need to change behavior before a decline in fertility will take place, and that the kind of response they will make will depend on what means are available to them.
most widely known and used source of demographic information; shows population size, distribution, age structure, characteristics
De jure population
people who legally "belong" to a given area in some way even if they are not present on census day.
includes coverage error and content error; most errors in census come from nonsampling error
uses demographic balancing equation to measure coverage error; compare to previous census
demographic balancing equation
population at time 2 = population at time 1 + births - deaths + in-migrants - out-migrants; uses combination of census data and vital registration data (and administrative data)
Dual system estimation
comparing census results with another source of information about the people counted (surveys)
differences exist between the characteristics of the population and the sample population
American Community Survey - rolling survey of 3 million Americans each year; replacement for the long form
Useful even if not gathered for demographic data; includes immigration records, IRS records, social security records, school enrollment records; particularly useful for local population changes and migration
American Community Survey
monthly survey since 1996; used for more detailed information about households; replaced census long form in 2010
church records (especially in Europe), local records, cemeteries, family genealogy
Geographic Information Systems
computer-based system that allows us to combine maps with data and then to analyze those data using spatial statistics, and show results in a type of map or other graphic format