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Ancient India ( Social Studies 8th Grade )
Terms in this set (24)
Why is India called a subcontinent ?
It is a subcontinent because it is not just a country but a distinct landmass.
On what two rivers did India's first civilizations settle?
Indus River and Ganges River
What mountain range separates India from China?
In which continent is India located?
Due to archeological findings, what aspects of a civilization do we think existed in this area.
We know that there was trading and religion. There were cities made of brick and stone. They had walls and pathways to walk on. The conclusion that I made about the civilization was that it was organized, intelligent, and had a good understanding of how to build structures. Jewelry and writing was also a big part of their civilizations. Animals were a part of their paintings because they were common things seen by the Indus River valley people. Jewelry was also, people created bracelets and rings. Jewelry could also be traded. The conclusion that I made about the Indus River Valley people were that they were creative and smart.
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro are in what modern day country?
How do we know that people from the Indus River Valley traded with people in Mesopotamia?
Indus River valley coins and stamps/ seals were found in Mesopotamia.
Most homes were connected to a centralized ______________ system carrying waste out of the city.
What are the three theories on what may have happened to the civilizations in the Indus RIver Valley?
Invasion/ defeat because of their lack of weapons. Environmental disasters they destroyed themselves. Earthquakes caused rivers change their position there for all of the tributaries dried up.
What group of people migrated from central Asia to India in 1500 B.C.?
Aryan are the group of people who migrated from central Asia to India.
The Caste System: list and describe the meaning for each level of the Caste System.
The caste system was the order of social hierarchy. Hidus believed that some people were more important than others. Brahmins were the highest caste and considered very important in India. They typically have the most advantages and the most riches. Warriors were second highest. The Warrior's job was to protect the community. Warriors had to be willing to give their lives to protect the Brahmans in case of danger. Since they were warriors they were allowed to kill animals (except cows) in order to eat. Warriors were very respected and honored by the people of India. Third highest was Merchants and farmers. The farmers and traders were responsible for buying and trading goods, as well as growing crops and providing food for the people of India. They had very tough jobs, but the economy of India truly depended on them. If they failed at the job, the people of India would not be able to survive. Second lowest was the Skilled and Unskilled Laborers . They were responsible to the building and construction of everything (baskets, roads, temples, etc.). They took orders from the higher three castes, and took orders from them as to what to build. Lowest were The Untouchables. They were responsible for doing all of the jobs that were considered dirty, undesirable, including street sweeper, cleaner, fishermen and many others. They were not allowed to own land or to build houses. They lived in miserable, horrible conditions. Untouchables did most of their work at nighttime, because people in the other castes to did not want to seen or be around them.
Founder of Buddhism
Breaking out of the cycle is called Nirvana. It is the end of everything that is not perfect. It is perfect peace, free of suffering.
The Four Noble Truths
Dukkha : suffering exists
Samudaya : There is cause for suffering
Nirodha : There is an end to suffering
Magga : In order to end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path
Eight Fold Path
Right View (understanding)
Right Contemplation (Concentration)
Founder of Hinduism
It was developed out of brahmanism. So no real founder.
3 Important Hindu Gods
Brahma : known as the Creator
Vishnu : known as the Preserver
Shiva : known as the Destroyer
What is reincarnation?
Reincarnation is a belief that the soul is eternal and lives many life times in one body after another.
The release of the soul ( Atman) forms the cycle of rebirth.
through pure acts, knowledge and devotion, you can reincarnation to a higher level, the opposite achieves the contrary result.
the code for leading one´s life
Who was the founder of the Mauryan Dynasty?
Describe Asoka and why he was important to the Mauryan Empire?
He was the last powerful Mauryan Emperor. He also had a lasting influence on the Empire. He was a religious leader who wanted the acceptance of all beliefs and cultures. He wanted nonviolence and included religion as a guiding principle during his rule.
Gupta Empire: List 3 accomplishments for each of the following:
Math: One of the most important contributions to Gupta Mathematicians was the 'Arabis' numerals ( 1-9 ).
There was also an introduction of and the use of ( 0 ). The Gupta created the zero as a placeholder that represented no units.
Aryabhata was one of the most famous scientists and mathematicians. He was able to calculate the length of a solar year to be 365.35 days. This was amazing considering the limited technology they had. However, even with limited technology he calculations were nearly perfect. Today we use a similar figure for our year.
Science: Aryabhata was able to figure out that the earth turned on its axis and revolved around the sun.
He also believed that the earth and other planets were round. This lead him to calculate the circumference of the Earth. Surprisingly his calculations were pretty accurate. He missed the correct circumference of the earth by .2%.
Lastly he speculated that the moon and other planets would shine at night because of reflected sunlight.
Society: Society in the Gupta Empire was based on Hindu culture, because of this the Gupta Empire ran along the caste lines.
In the Gupta Empire the family was the core of Gupta society. The father was the head of the family. The sons married and continued to live in the house of their father.
In the Gupta society women were not viewed as the same as man. The social role had started to decline. During this time women lost many legal rights. This included the right to participate in religious rituals and were treated like "shudras" .
Economic: The Gupta Empire coined more than a dozen different coins to create common currency. When the Gupta Empire did this they established trade within the Empire. This trade helped to drive their economy and prosperity.
Soldiers had discovered how to ride seasonal monsoons from the middle east and Eastern Africa to India. From there they could also travel to Southeast Asia and China.
The silk roads were a huge part in the Empire's success. A southern route ran through the middle of India and into the Gupta Empire.
Culture: The Gupta Empire was considered to be a true " Golden Age" of Hindu literature. Gupat people created plays, poetry, fables, and significant religions and legal texts.
The Gupta also created sculptures and other forms of art. They were made for buddhist or hindu temples and depicted gods and goddesses. They also may have included the buddha.
The Ajanta Caves were a group of 30 caves carved into a sone hill side. They were used as temples, monasteries, and places to live. The caves had paintings and sculptures on the walls and around the ground.
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