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Study guide- US history unit 1
Terms in this set (70)
Native Americans first came to North America
11,000 years ago
Bartholmeu Dias first sailed around cape of good hope
Vasco da Gama first sailed to India and back to Portugal
Columbus first sailed to Western Hemisphere
Magellans voyage around the world
Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca's
England became protestant
Spanish Armada attacked England
Roanoke colony founded
Virginia house of Burgesses first meets
Toleration act created
For what two reasons was Georgia founded?
1) buffer between English North American colonies and Spanish Florida
2) place of refuge for impoverished in England
How did the Inca keep their large empire connected?
Empire kept together by roads
What were two causes given in the notes that led Europeans to explore the world in the 1400s?
1) growth in commerce, prosperity; europeans wanted to trade with the rest of the world to increase their wealth
2) more united government, especially in Portugal and Spain; these governments can spend extra money on funding expeditions
What European travel to China and told other Europeans of the wealth of this place?
What Portuguese leader began to sponsor expeditions to Africa in the 1400s? What type of ships did the Portuguese use for early expedition?
Prince Henry the navigator, caravels
What spanish explorer was the first to explore Florida?
Juan Ponce De Leon
This was a Dominican priest who advocated for the rights of Native Americans?
Bartholome De Las Casas
What was the Colombian Exchange?
The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the old and new world
What was the Encomienda system?
Spanish settlers are given Native American villages and Native American are to provide food and work part of the time for free, in return Spanish supposed to protect the Native Americans and convert them to Christianity.
What was the worst of the diseases that kill Native Americans during the Columbian exchange?
What were two animals that came from the old world to the New World?
Horses and cattle
What were two crops brought from the old world to the New World?
Wheat and rice
What were two crops brought from the New World to the old world?
Corn and cacao
By the end of the 1500s, historically, what was the Spanish empire? What specific religion did the Spanish bring to the New World?
Spain has one of the largest empires in history, Catholicism
Why did England become protestant?
England became protestant after the Pope wouldn't grant king Henry VIII a divorce
This conquistador explored the southwest US in 1540?
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
What group lived in the Yucatan peninsula and Central America around 800 A.D.? What did these people use his temples? What happened to the civilization?
Mayans, pyramids as temples, vanished before Columbus's voyage for unknown reasons
When and where did the Aztecs establish their empire? What did the Aztecs use as temples, and what happened here as part of the Aztec religion?
Establish around 1300 A.D. in central Mexico, use pyramids as temples, human sacrifice happened in temples
Name the European sailor that was the first to sail around cape of good hope
Name the European sailor that was the first to sail to India and back around Africa
Vasco da Gama
What way did Portugal want to go to sail to China and India? How did Columbus want to go to India and China? What were two problems with Columbus's plan?
Around Africa, Columbus thought it was best to sail west around the world, Columbus's problems were: The world was bigger than he thought and Asia doesn't go as far as east as Columbus imagined it did
What country finance Columbus' expedition? What type of ships did he take, and what year, and where did he land when he made it to the New World?
Spain, he took three caravels in 1492 and reach the Bahamas and explored the Caribbean
Why did Columbus call the native Americans 'Indians'? Who is America named after, and why is it this person and not Columbus?
Columbus thought he was in the East Indies so he called the people Indians, Amerigo Vespucci because he recognized that the newly discovered land was new continents
What European is the first to see the pacific ocean, and where did he travel across to see this?
Vasco de balboa travels across Panama to see the Pacific Ocean
What sailors voyage was the first around the world? What ocean did he name? What happened to him in the Philippines?
Ferdinand Magellan, names pacific ocean, dies in the Philippines
Who were the two most famous of the Spanish conquistadors? What empires did each take over?
Hernan Cortes: conquered Aztec empire
Francisco Pizarro: conquered Inca empire
Give 4 reasons why the asked text were able to be conquered by a much smaller Spanish forces?
1) disease, mostly smallpox
2) Technology, armor and guns
3) animals, horses
What major historical event coincided with the first Native Americans coming to North America?
The first Native Americans probably came from where, and what did they cross to come to North America?
What were the 3 areas where the first Native American civilizations began?
Mexico, Central America, South America
What was Queen Elizabeth called, and what US state is named after her?
'Virgin Queen', Virginia
What did Queen Elizabeth encourage English sailors to do, and what English sailor is the second person to lead a voyage around the world?
Encourage English sailors to attack Spanish ships, Sir Francis Drake
For what 2 reasons did Phillip II intend to invade England?
1) wanted to stop the English from attacking his ships
2) to force England to be Catholic once again
What did Phillip Cesar to invade England? What happened to the invasion fleet?
Spanish Armada, defeated and wreaked in a storm
Home many colonists were there in the Roanoke colony? Roanoke Island is in what modern US state?
117, North Carolina
Who was the colony's first governor? Why did he leave Roanoke? Where did he go?
John White, he left to get supplies in England
What major event in history prevented John White from going back to Roanoke island?
Spanish Armada vs. English
What did John White find at Roanoke when he returned, etched into a piece of wood?
What was the first permanent English settlement in what is now the US?
How many settlers came to Jamestown? What did they have in common?
104, all men
What was the winter of 1609-1620 called in Jamestown?
What was the first profitable crop in Virginia, and who was the first person to plant this crop?
Tobacco, John Rolfe
What was the headright system?
Every new settler received a 50 acre grant of land, counted by heads
What was indentured servitude?
People who worked for a period of time, then free, seen as first step toward beginning of slavery in the US
What was the first meeting of an elected legislature in the present day US called?
House of Burgesses
Who were the Puritans?
Puritans: Protestant minority in England
Who were the Separatists?
Small number of Puritans, radicals.
What did the small group of separatists who came to North America in the early 1600's call themselves?
When did the pilgrims land in Cape Cod, and what ship did they arrive on? What document did they sign? Why did the pilgrims call themselves pilgrims?
1620 on the Mayflower. They signed Mayflower compact. Called themselves pilgrims bc they saw themselves on a holy journey to create a new society in New World
What happened to the Native Americans in New England shortly before and after the pilgrims landed? What is the harvest festival of 1621 called today that included the pilgrims and Native Americans?
Native Americans died of diseases, Thanksgiving
What large group came to New England in 1630? How many ships and people did they bring, and how were they different from the first colonists of Virginia? What was the capital of Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Puritans, 17 ships and 1,000 people( mostly families), Boston
What aspect of a town and community did Puritans think was very important?
What colony was founded as a religious refuge for English Catholics? What act was passed in this colony that guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians? What was the significance of this act?
Maryland, Toleration Act; assures religious toleration to all Christians, seen as beginning of religious freedom in the what would become the US
Name the 3 colonies that were founded in large part by religious dissenters in Massachusetts?
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire
What colony had the important port of Charles Town, and made a profit off of rice growing? What 2 colonies came out of this colony due to their inability to get along with each other?
Carolina, North and South Carolina
What colony started as a Dutch colony? What was the Dutch name for the colony, and what was the Dutch capital called? What was the capital renamed? What other colony came out of this colony?
New York, New Netherland and New Amsterdam, renamed New York City, New Jersey and New York
What colony was founded by William Penn? What group of people came here to escape persecution in England? What was an important early city in this colony? What colony split from this colony in 1703?
Pennsylvania, Quakers, Philadelphia, 1703; Delaware
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