standing on Mein Kampf
Rosies worked for many different reasons: to earn $$, for consumption reason, due to being widowed, for self esteem/personal achievement, and some had always been working
faced sex segregation (if a man could be hired, he was hired first)
women faced resentment, discrimination, sexual harassment, and belittlement
loophole in "equal pay for equal work"--> did work that men wouldn't do
African American women faced race and gender obstacles, but also preferred factory work as opposed to domestic work because it had a tangible product for a cause
sociability/comradery/solidarity among the Rosies
Social Security benefits
struggled with how to handle their children while working
expected to work during the war, give jobs back to soldiers after the war was over
In the spring of 1964, COFO (Council of Federated Organizations) devised this plan to import 1,000 volunteers from outside the South (mostly white students) to register black voters in the Deep South.
It was meant to infuse new energy into the voter registration drive AND to use white students to focus media and federal attention on southern resistance.
1st volunteers arrived in June 1964, and were trained in nonviolent resistance and warned about the dangers involved.
Violence overshadowed Freedom Summer → 4 volunteers killed, 80 beaten, and over 1,000 arrested. 37 churches were bombed and burned.
Recruitment of white northern students created tension within the movement. Highly educated whites had to be reminded they had come to help, not take charge.
Presence of white women raised certain issues.
During Freedom Summer, the number of white women involved in the civil rights movement increased dramatically. (Women made up for ⅓ - ½ of the volunteers)
Closeness or intimacy between black men and white women triggered white racists' anger. Black women often resented them, contributing to racial divisions in the early years of the women's liberation movement.
Climax of Freedom Summer (and southern voter registration efforts) was the challenge to the all-white Mississippi Democratic Party.
Mississippi blacks organized a delegation of the newly formed Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to attend the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City.
Here they demanded that they replace the all white state group as the official Mississippi delegation. MFDP rejected this proposal, claiming that it was a compromise that didn't address the legality of Mississippi's organized denial of blacks' access to the political process.
american voting rights and civil rights activist, Mississippi freedom summer, biblical
Most famous local leader from Sunflower County, Mississippi. She provided shelter, moral support, and valuable personal contacts, to activists, often times at her own personal risk.
Worked on a cotton plantation, where she exhibited natural leadership capacities that eventually elevated her to a position as a kind of forewoman for her boss and an influential person in the local black community.
Her desire to make blacks full citizens motivated her to join SNCC, and a year later, in 1963, she registered to vote.
Became organizer and spokeswoman for the Mississippi voter registration effort.
She was an exemplar of the rural black southern women who were vital to the southern civil rights movement.
Suffered both physically and emotionally from the aftermath of a brutal beating she received as punishment for her commitment to the civil rights movement.
Testified before the Democratic National Convention's rules committee about the violence and beatings she suffered in order to register to vote.