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perspectives used to explain events; models

huntington's disease

disorder marked by violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thinking, involuntary movements, and absurd beliefs


abnormal form of the appropriate gene that emerges on accident.

psychotropic medication

drugs that mainly affect emotion and thought processes

antianxiety drugs

drugs to help reduce tension and anxiety

antidepressant drugs

drugs that help improve the mood of people who are depressed

antibipolar drugs

drugs that help stabilize the moods of those with bipolar disorder

antipsychotic drugs

drugs that help reduce the confusion, hallucinations and delusion of psychotic disorders

electroconvulsive therapy

two electrodes are attached to a patient's forehead and surges of electrical current are passed through the body


part that denotes instinctual needs, drives, and impulses; operates in accordance with the pleasure principle (always seeking gratification)


unconsciously seeks gratification; reality principle (knowledge we acquire through experience that it can be unacceptable to express our id impulses); guides us to know when we can and can't express impulses


development of the conscience; good and bad and feelings associated with each

ego theorist

people who emphasize the role of the ego and consider it a more independent and powerful force than frued

self theorist

emphasize the importance of developing a healthy self interest and give the greatest attention to the role of the unified personality

object relations theorist

propose that people are motivated by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development

free association

therapy when the therapist tells the patient to describe every thought feeling and emotion that comes to mind even if it seems irrelevant


unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy; when they suddenly cannot participate or free associate


when patients act and feel towards their therapists the way they felt toward important persons in their lives

manifest content

consciously remembered dream

latent content

symbolic meaning of the dream


the reliving of past repressed feelings

working through

when the patient and therapist must reexamine the same issues over and over in the course of many sessions, each time achieving greater clarity

relational psychoanalytical therapy

model that argues that therapists are key figures in the lives of patients, patient's feelings about what happening in therapy are thought to reveal their long standing relational problems, and therapists should also disclose things about themselves to try to establish a more egalitarian relationship with patients.


simple forms of learning

operant conditioning

humans and animals learn to behave a certain way as a result of receiving rewards


individuals learn responses simply by observing other individual's behavior

classical conditioning

learning occurs by temporal association; when two events repeatedly occur close together in time they become fused together

systematic desensitization

step-by-step procedure where the clients gradually face their fears

cognitive behavioral therapist

therapist that help people change both their counterproductive behaviors and their dysfunctional ways of thinking

self actualize

fulfill the potential for goodness and growth

existential therapy

therapy in which people are encouraged to accept responsibility for their lives and problems

gestalt therapy

humanistic approach where therapists guide the clients toward self recognition and self acceptance but they try to achieve this goal by challenging and frustrating the client.

family systems theory

family is a system of interacting parts who interact with one another in consistent ways and conform to rules unique to each family

group therapy

format of therapy in which a therapist meets with a group of clients who have similar problems

self help group

group of people who have similar problems come together to help and support one another without the direct leadership of a professional clinician

community mental health treatment

program that allows clients to receive treatment in familiar surroundings as they try to recover

primary prevention

efforts used to improve community attitudes and policies; goal to prevent psychological disorders

secondary prevention

identifying and treating of psychological disorders in the early stages

tertiary prevention

provide effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders dont become long term problems

culture sensitive therapy

therapy with approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of cultural minority group

reality principle

knowledge that we acquire through experience that it can be acceptable to express our id impulses outright

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