AP Human Geography Unit 4
The Political Organization of Space
Terms in this set (60)
the study of the political organization of the planet.
a versatile place that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above
a political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in a place while people moved into occupy the surroundings
a political boundary that has ceased to function but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape
a political boundary that developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the major elements of cultural landscape
a political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape
The three step process in which a boundary is created.
a treaty-like, legal sounding document is drawn up in which actual points in the landscape are described
the translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation
the actual placing of a political boundary of the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers
political boundaries defined and delimited as straight lines or arcs
boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity
political boundaries that coincide with prominent physical features in the natural landscape
Locational Boundary Dispute
territorial dispute along the edge of two neighboring land owners
Operational Boundary Dispute
Boundaries that move according to operations or functions
Definitional Boundary Dispute
Focuses on the legal language of the treaty for the boundary.
Allocational Boundary Dispute
occurs over a resource on a boundary between two countries.
Ex. Iraq and Kuwait 1991
Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country.
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
an area not yet fully integrated into a politically organized area
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Nation stretches across borders and scorss state
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
Ex. - Kurds, Shamans, etc.
a recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation
a term encompassing all the citizens of a state
the desire on behalf of a group that sees itself as a nation to achieve self-government through the establishment or promotion of a nation-state with genuine sovereignty
Loyalty to the governing state in which you live
describes a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center to a point on the boundary exhibits little variance
protruded area, one that extends from a more compact core; this area sometimes has developed in different ways from the core (CHILE)
a state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contagious whole. The individual parts may be separated from each other by the land area of other states or by international waters (PHILIPPINES)
a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
an interior country or state that is surrounded by land
states that are small in size
A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
Conference of Berlin
Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies.
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
a part of a country that is separated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory
An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes
Spreads the opposition supporters across many districts
Links liked-minded, distant voters with oddly-drawn boundaries
Type of gerrymandering that concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts
control of a territory already occupied
the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
Mackinder's Heartland Theory
"The Geographical Pivot of History." He formulated his hypothesis as: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world Heartland (also known as the Pivot Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and Asia).
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
a fundamental aspect of human behavior and refers to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own. In humans it relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice
the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea;
1994, constitution for the ocean to protect resources
United Nation; an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
European Union; a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states with supranational and intergovernmental features, located in Europe.
Ex. The EU is an example of a supranational organization that promotes economic and political stability in the member states
Exclusive Economic Zone; a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. This is significant, for example, in the Caspian Sea. There has been much conflict over the debate of who has control of the resources in the sea.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
An international organization that has joined together for military purposes
Agreement signed on January 1, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania