pay chapters 13- 15 ty abernathy
Terms in this set (180)
patterns of emotion, thought, and action that are considered pathological (diseased or disordered) for one or more of these four reasons: deviance, dysfunction, distress, or danger.
(people can be usually healthy or extremely disturbed)
behaviors, thoughts, or emotions may be considered abnormal when they deviate from a society or culture's norms or values.
for ex: it's normal to be a bit concerned if friends are whispering, but abnormal if you're equally concerned when strangers are whispering.
when someone's dysfunction interferes with his or her daily functioning, such as drinking to the point that you cannot hold a job, stay in school, or maintain relationships, it would be considered abnormal behavior.
behaviors, thoughts, or emotions that cause significant personal distress may qualify as abnormal. self abuse relationship problems, and suicidal thoughts all indicate serious personal/ distress and unhappiness.
if someones thoughts, emotions, or behaviors present a danger to self or others, such as engaging in road rage to the point of physical confrontation, it would be considered abnormal
stone age people believed what about abnormal behavior.
it was stemmed from demonic possession; the therapy was to bore a hole in the skull so that the evil spirit could escape.
special mental hospitals in europe initially designed to provide retreats from the world and to protect society..... eventually became overcrowded, inhumane prisons.
in 1792, he was a french physician, was charge of a parisian asylum. believed that inmates' behavior was caused by underlying physical illness, he insisted they be unchecked and removed from their unlighted, unheated cells,
the perspective that diseases (including mental illness) have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured.
the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
believed that the medical model encourages people to believe that they have no responsibility for their actions. he contended that mental illness is a myth used to label individuals who are peculiar or offensive to others
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)
a reference book developed by the American Psychiatric Association that classifies mental disorders on the basis of symptoms, and provides a common language and standard criteria useful for communication and research.
(DSM) R or TR means
modern research does suggest that brain disease and damage can dramatically affect?
thoughts, emotions, and behaviors
co-occurence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism.
DSM has how many disorders? how many categories?
400 disorders, 17 categories.
problems associated with sever anxiety, such as phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder.
problems associated with sever disturbances of mood, such as major depressive disorder, mania, or alternating, episodes of the two (bipolar disorder)
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
a group of disorders characterized by major disturbances in perception, language and thought, emotion, and behavior.
disorders in which the normal integration of consciousness, memory,or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered, such as dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder
problems related to lifelong maladaptive personality traits, including antisocial personality disorder (violation of others' rights with no sense of guilt) or borderline personality disorder (impulsivity and instability in mood and relationships)
serious disturbance of sleep, such as insomnia (to little sleep), sleep terrors, or hypersomnia (to much sleep)
Substance related disorder
problems caused by alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
problems caused by limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior
problems related to food such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia
problems related to unusual preoccupation with physical health or physical symptoms with no physical cues
conditions in which physical or psychological symptoms are intentionally produced in order to assume a patients role
sexual and gender identity disorders
sex or gender identity, such as unsatisfactory sexual activity, finding unusual objects or situations arousing, or gender identity confusion.
impulse control disorders (not elsewhere classified)
problems related to kleptomania (impulsive stealing), pyromania (setting of fires), and pathological gambling
problems involving excessive emotional reaction to specific stressors such as divorce, family discord, or economic concerns
disorders first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or early adolescence
problems that appear before adulthood, such as autism, learning disorder, and attention deficit disorder.
delirium, dementia, amnestic, and other cognitive disorders
problems caused by known damage to the brain, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and physical trauma to the brain.
other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
problems related to physical or sexual abuse, relational problems, occupational problems, and so forth.
major anxiety disorders
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
2. Panic disorder
4. Obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD)
5. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms
chronic, excessive fear, and worry, not attached to any specific threat
because of persistent muscle tension and autonomic fear reactions, people with this disorder may develop headaches, heart palpitations, dizziness, and insomnia.
(affects twice as much women)
Panic Disorder symptoms
recurrent episodes of intense anxiety, dizziness, and difficulty breathing, with no apparent cause
brief attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling, dizziness, and difficulty breathing
3 types of phobia's
agoraphobia, specific, and social
fear of avoidance of embarrassing or inescapable situations, especially large, open or public spaces
people with this restrict their normal activities because they fear having a panic attack in crowded, enclosed, or wide open places where they would be unable to receive help in an emergency .. in severe cases they might refuse to leave home
specific phobias symptoms
fear of specific object or situation (spiders elevators)
social phobia symptoms
fear of embarrassment in social situations (public speaking)
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms
flashbacks, nightmares, and impaired functioning following exposure to a life threatening or horrific event.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
involves persistent, unwanted, fearful thoughts (obsessions) and or irresistible urges to perform an act or repeated rituals (compulsions)
people with anxiety disorders have habits of thinking, or cognitive habits that make them prone to fear they tend to be hyper vigilant they constantly scan their environment for signs of danger and ignore signs of safety.
mood disorders (also known as affective disorders
characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states.
major depressive disorder
long lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
person is overly excited, extremely active, and easily distracted. in addition, he or she exhibits unrealistically high self esteem, and inflated sense of importance, and poor judgement .. giving away valuable possessions or going on wild spending sprees. the person also is often hyperactive and may not sleep for days at a time yet does not feel fatigued . thinking is speeded up and can change abruptly to new topics, showing rapid flight of ideas.
mania most of the time
depressed most of the time
Dysthymia (dis-THIE-me-uh) is a mild but long-term (chronic) form of depression. Symptoms usually last for at least two years, and often for much longer than that. Dysthymia interferes with your ability to function and enjoy life.
With dysthymia, you may lose interest in normal daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, and have low self-esteem and an overall feeling of inadequacy. People with dysthymia are often thought of as being overly critical, constantly complaining and incapable of having fun.
Cyclothymia causes emotional ups and downs, but they're not as extreme as in bipolar disorder type I or II.
With cyclothymia, you experience periods when your mood noticeably shifts up and down from your baseline. You may feel on top of the world for a time, followed by a low period when you feel somewhat blue. Between these cyclothymic highs and lows, you may feel stable and fine.
Compared with bipolar disorder I or II, the highs and lows of cyclothymia are less extreme.
learned helplessness theory
depression occurs when people become resigned to the idea that they are helpless to escape from something painful
a group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception language thought , emotion and behavior. the individual withdraws from people and reality often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations.
perception- enhanced or blunted
sensory stimulation- jumbled
thoughts are disorganized and impaired emotions are exaggerated and flucuate
false, imaginary sensory perception that occurs without an external stimulus
mistaken belief based on misrepresentations of reality
(husband cheating, friend avoiding)
positive schizophrenia symptoms
involve additions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including bizarre delusions and hallucinations
negative schizophrenia symptoms
involve the loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors, including impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flat or blunted affect and social withdrawal.
lack of contact with reality
delusion of persecution
plot to kill is the delusion
delusions of grandeur
people with schizophrenia believe that they are someone very important (like a queen of england, jesus)
delusions of reference
unrelated events are given special significance as when a person believes that a radio program is giving him or her a special message
almost no emotional response of any kind
assume a nearly immobile stance for and extended period
positive symptoms are more common when schizophrenia develops rapidly, whereas negative symptoms are more often found in slow developing schizophrenia . true or false
prenatal stress and viral infections, birth complications, immune responses, maternal malnutrition and advanced paternal age all may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. true or false
dissociative disorders definition
amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities result in from avoidance of painful memories or situations.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
previously known as multiple personality disorder in which at least two separate and distinct personalities exist within a person at the same time.
Dissociative amnesia (formerly psychogenic amnesia): the temporary loss of recall memory, specifically episodic memory, due to a traumatic or stressful event.
Depersonalization is a state in which the individual ceases to perceive the reality of the self or the environment. The patient feels that his or her body is unreal, is changing, or is dissolving; or that he or she is outside of the body.
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning
antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder is a type of chronic mental condition in which a person's ways of thinking, perceiving situations and relating to others are dysfunctional — and destructive. People with antisocial personality disorder typically have no regard for right and wrong and often disregard the rights, wishes and feelings of others.
Those with antisocial personality disorder tend to antagonize, manipulate or treat others either harshly or with callous indifference. They may often violate the law, landing in frequent trouble, yet they show no guilt or remorse. They may lie, behave violently or impulsively, and have problems with drug and alcohol use. These characteristics typically make people with antisocial personality disorder unable to fulfill responsibilities related to family, work or school.
borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder that generates significant emotional instability. This can lead to a variety of other stressful mental and behavioral problems.
With borderline personality disorder, you may have a severely distorted self-image and feel worthless and fundamentally flawed. Anger, impulsiveness and frequent mood swings may push others away, even though you may desire to have loving and lasting relationships.
If you have borderline personality disorder, don't get discouraged. Many people with this disorder get better with treatment and can live satisfying lives.
preoccupation with oneself and insensitive to needs of others
four hallmarks of antisocial personality disorder
egocentrism, lack of conscience,impulsive behavior and superficial charm.
creates situations of drama
your textbook defines abnormal behavior as ??
patterns of behaviors thoughts or emotions considered pathological for one or more of for reasons (deviance, dysfunction, distress, or danger
--- is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
problems reflect cultural values and beliefs
inappropriate conditioning or modeling
exaggerated form of an adaptive reaction
blocked personal growth
unconscious unresolved conflict
problems with brain function, genetic predisposition, biochemistry
anxiety disorders are
characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
repetitive ritualistic behaviors, such as hand washing, counting, or putting things in order are called
the two main types of mood disorders are
major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder
someone who experiences repeated episodes of mania or cycles between mania and depression has a
according to the theory known as ----, when faced with a painful situation form which there is no escape, animals and people enter a state of helplessness and resignation
a psychotic disorder that is characterized by major disturbances in perception, language, thought emotion, and behavior
perceptions for which there are no appropriate external stimuli are called--- and the most common type among people suffering form schizophrenia is---
type of schizophrenia dominated by delusions (persecution and grandeur) and hallucinations (voices)
type of schizophrenia marked by motor disturbances (immobility, wild activity) (repeating speech to others)
type fo schizophrenia characterized by incoherent speech, flat, or exaggerated emotions, and social withdrawal
type of schizophrenia that meets the criteria but not any of the above subtypes
type of schizophrenia that no longer meets the full criteria but still shows symptoms
the disorder that is an attempt to avoid painful memories or situations and is characterized by amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities is
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning are know as
examples of culture general symptoms of mental health difficulties, useful in diagnosing disorders across the cultures?
trouble sleeping, worry all the time, can't get along
techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life.
break down these three into the approaches to therapy
talk, behavior, and biomedical
1. talk-- psychoanalysis (freud)/psychodynamic therapy--humanistic:client centered therapy (rogers)
cognitive:rational- emotive behavior therapy
cognitive:behavior therapy (beck)
Behavior-- Classical conditioning:operant conditioning: observational learning
biomedical-- psychopharmacology: electroconvulsive: psychosurgery
freudian therapy designes to bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness; also frauds theoretical school of thought
block unconscious thoughts from coming to light.
when you let your mind wander and remove conscious censorship over thoughts
forbidden desires and unconscious conflicts are more freely expressed during dreams. even while dreaming, however these feelings and conflicts are forbidden and must be disguised as images that have deeper symbolic meaning. thus, according to freudian dream theory, a therapist might interpret a dream of riding horse or driving a car (the surface description (manifest content) as a desire for or concern about sexual intercourse (the hidden , underlying meaning (latent content)
analysis of resistance
freud found that patients would often show an inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal certain memories, thoughts, motives or experiences ""suddenly forgetting""
analysis of transference
during psychoanalysis patients disclose intimate feelings and memories, and the relationship between the therapist and patient may become complex and emotionally charged. as a result patients often apply (Or transfer) some of their unresolved emotions and attitudes from past relationships onto the therapist. the therapist uses this process to help the patients ""relive"" painful past relationships in a safe, therapeutic setting so that he or she can move forward
the core of all psychoanalytic therapy is interpretation. during free association, dream analysis, resistance, and transference the analyst listens closely and tries to find patterns and hidden conflicts .. then he or she will interpret the hidden meanings to the client
a briefer, more directive contemporary form of psychoanalysis, focusing more on the conscious processes and current problems
therapy that seeks to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional adjustment)
it assumes that people with problems are suffering form a disruption of their normal growth potential and hence, their self concept. when obstacles are removed the individual is free to become the self accepting, genuine person every person is capable of being
one of the best know humanistic therapist.. developed and approach that encourages people to actualize their potential and relate to others in a genuine way.
client centered therapy (rogers)
like psychoanalysis and psychodynamic it explores thoughts and feelings as a way to obtain insight into the causes for behaviors
four important qualities of communication
empathy, positive regard, genuineness, active listening
sensitive understand and sharing of another person's inner experience.
unconditional positive regard
a genuine caring and nonjudgemental attitude towards people based on there innate value as individuals..
sincere is another word for this
involves reflecting, paraphrasing and clarifying what the client is saying, the clinician communicates that he or she is genuinely interested and paying close attention
reflect--hold a mirror in front, enabling that person to see him or herself
paraphrase - summarize in different words what the client has said
clarify-- to check that both the speaker and listener are on same wavelength
therapy that focuses on changing the faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors
assumes that faulty thought processes , beliefs that are irrational, overly demanding, or that fail to match reality, create problem behaviors and emotions
a group of techniques based on learning principles that is used to change maladaptive behaviors
the focus is on the problem behavior itself, rather that on underlying causes.
classical conditioning occurs?
when a neural stimulus (NS) becomes associated with and unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit a conditioned response (CR
behavior therapist to treat a phobia use this, which begins with relaxation training, followed by imagining or directly experiencing various versions of a feared object or situation while remaining deeply relaxed.
uses classical conditioning techniques to create anxiety rather than extinguish it.
used to target or shape a behavior
in which clients are asked to observe and imitate appropriate models as they perform desired behaviors
when therapy combines live modeling with direct and gradual practice
using physiological interventions (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery) to reduce and alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
three aspects of biomedical therapy
psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), psychosurgery
study of drug effects on the mind and behavior
psychiatric drugs are classified into four major categories?
antianxiety, antipsychotic, mood stabilizer, and antidepressant
also known as minor tranquilizers.. lower the sympathetic activity in the brain.. anxiety is diminished and the person is calmer and less tense... can reduce alertness, coordination, and reaction time
ex: Ativan, Xanax, valium
(neuroleptics) reduce the agitated behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms associated with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia... work by decreasing dopamine receptors in brain.
ex: clozaril,haldol,seroquel, thorazine
mood stabilizer drugs
such as lithium.. helps steady the mood swings of those suffering from bipolar disorder, the condition is marked by mood swings from mania to depression...helping to break down the manic depressive cycle
ex: esk cr, lithobid, tegretol
used primarily to treat people with depression, but they are also effective for some anxiety disorders and eating disorders.
ex: Paxil, prozac
also known as electro shock therapy (EST) a moderate electrical current is passed through the brain between two electrodes place on the outside of the head.
used for severe depression who do not respond to antidepressant drugs or psychotherapy.
least used, brain surgery performed to reduce serious, deliberating psychological problems.
cut the nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus.
deep brain stimulation
surgeon drills two tiny holes into the patients skull and implants electrodes in the area of the brain believed to be associate with a specific disorder...electrodes are connected to a pace maker in chest or stomach that sense low voltage electricity to the problem areas in the brain
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
rTMS, delivers a brief and powerful electrical current through a coil of wire place on the head.. creates a strong magnetic field that is applied to certain areas in the brain.
multiple people meet together to work tower therapeutic goals.
ex:self help group
treatment to change maladaptive interaction patterns within a family
allows clinicians to each more clines and provide them with greater access to info regarding specific problems
psychoanalysis / psychodynamic, humanistic, and cognitive therapies are often grouped together as
the system of psychotherapy by freud that seeks to bring unconscious conflict into conscious awareness is known as
--therapy emphasizes conscious processes and current problems
--therapy seeks to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring
in rogerian therapy, the.. is responsible for discovering maladaptive patterns
the process by which the therapist and client work to change destructive ways of thinking is called
beck practices..., which attempts to change not only destructive thoughts and beliefs, but associated behaviors as well
cognitive behavior therapy
the main focus in behavior therapy is to increase.... and to decrease...
adaptive behaviors, maladaptive behaviors
scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others.
explanations for behaviors or events
how we think about and interpret ourselves and others
how situational factors and other people affect us
how we develop and are affected by interpersonal relationships, including prejudice, aggression, altruism, attraction
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
attributing peoples behavior to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) factors
dispositional/ peronsal (just who they are)
situational/ circumstances (whats going on in their life)
"blaming the victim"
self serving bias
when we explain our own behavior, we tend to favor internal attributions for our success and external attributions for our failures
learned predisposition to respond to objects, people, and events in a particular way
cognitions( thoughts and beliefs)
a feeling of discomfort caused by discrepancy between two conflicting cognitions or between and attitude or behavior
the act of changing behavior as a rest of real or imagined group pressure
normative social influence
people conform to group pressure out of a need for approval and acceptance by the group.norms--expected behaviors that are adhered to by members of group
informational social influence
you conform not to gain approval but bc you assume he or she has more information than you do
people we most admire, like, and want to resemble ( the person you wish you were like)
the act of following a direct command usually from an authority figure
a learned generally negative attitude directed toward specific people soley because of their membership in and identified group.
people tend to judge in-group members as being more attractive, having better personalities..
outgroup homogeneity effect
members of minority groups are not recognized as varied and complex individuals.
said frustration creates anger (frustration aggression hypothesis)
actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
we help others only bc we hope for later reciprocation, bc it make us feel virtuous, avoid feeling guilty
empathy alturism hypothesis
this perspective holds that simply seeing or hearing of another persons suffering can create empathy
the study of how other people influence our thoughts, feelings and actions is called
the two major attribution mistakes people make are
fundamental attribution error and self serving bias
... theory says that contradictions between our attitudes and behavior can motivate us to change our attitudes to agree with our behavior
the act of changing behavior as a result of real or imagined group pressure is called
stanley Milgram was investigating.. in his classic teacher learner shock study
obedience to authority
contributes to destructive obedience
foot in the door
faulty decision making resulting from a highly cohesive group striving for agreement to the point of avoiding inconsistent information is
.. is a learned, generally negative, attitude toward specific people soley because of their membership is an identified group