AQA GCSE Geography: Tropical Rainforest- Deforestation and Sustainable Management

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TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Main causes of Deforestation
FARMING- Cleared to set up small subsistence farms or large commercial cattle ranches. "Slash and burn" technique used (vegetation cut down, dried then burnt)
MINERAL EXTRACTION- Minerals (gold, iron ore) mined and sold. Trees cut down to expose ground and clear access routes.
COMMERCIAL LOGGING- Trees are felled to make money.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Other main causes of Deforestation
POPULATION PRESSURE-As population in area increases, trees are cleared to make land for new settlements.
ROAD BUILDING-More settlements and industries lead to more roads built. Trees along path of road cleared to build them.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Environmental impacts of deforestation
-Fewer trees means fewer habitats and food sources for animals- REDUCES BIODIVERSITY (species move or become extinct)
-No trees to hold soil together- heavy rain washes away soil.
-Soil from deforested areas washed in to rivers can kill fish, make water undrinkable and cause flooding.
-Without trees no leaf fall- no nutrient supply to soil- LESS FERTILE
-Deforestation means more CO2 atmosphere- adds to global warming.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Social Impacts of deforestation
-More jobs for locals so quality of life IMPROVES
-Some native tribes forced to move when trees on land cleared.
-CONFLICT between native people, landowners, mining companies and logging companies over use of land.
-LIVLIHOODS local people destroyed- loss of animals and plants they rely on.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Economic Impacts of deforestation
-Logging, farming and mining create jobs
-Lot of money made from selling timber, mining and commercial farming
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Political Impact of Deforestation
-Pressure from foreign governments to stop deforestation.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Sustainability
People today to access resources but without stopping people in future from getting them
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Methods to manage rainforest sustainably
-Selective logging -Ecotourism
-replanting -Reducing debt
-reducing demand for hardwood -Protection
-education
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Selective logging
-Only some trees felled (oldest ones felled)
-Less damaging since overall forest structure kept- canopy still there so soil not exposed.
-Least damaging forms are 'horse logging'+'helicopter logging'
-'Helicopter logging' used SARAWAK
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Replanting
-New trees planted to replace ones cut down- trees for people to use in future
-Important SAME TYPE OF TREE REPLACED-variety trees kept for future
-Some countries have environmental laws make logging companies replant trees.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Reducing demand for Hardwood
-Hardwood general term for certain tree species (mahogany, teak)- used make furniture
-High demand from consumers in rich countries
-Some tropical hardwood trees rarer.
-Strategies to reduce demand include heavily taxing imported hardwood or banning sale.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Education
-Some don't know environmental impacts of deforestation- local people make money short term (illegal logging) to overcome poverty
-Educating people about impacts and ways to reduce them. Also educating on alternate ways to make money environmentally friendly
-Both mean rainforest is conserved so sustainable
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Ecotourism
-Tourism not harming environment+benefiting local people- income
-Local people don't have to log or farm- fewer trees cut down
-Usually small scale (small numbers of visitors at time)- impact low
-Helps area as improves quality of life local people
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Reducing debt
-Lot of tropical rainforests in poorer countries- borrow money from richer countries or organisations to fund development schemes, etc
-Countries often allow logging, farming, mining in rainforests to make money+pay back debt- reducing debt means countries wouldn't have to do this.
-Debt can be cancelled but no garuntee money spent on conservation.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Protection
-Environmental laws used to protect forests;
-Laws ban use of wood from forests managed non-sustainably
-Laws banning illegal logging
-Laws ban logging certain tree species (mahogany)
-Many countries set up national parks+nature reserves in forests- in areas, damaging activities restricted.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Case study
Amazon Rainforest, Brazil, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela..(South Am)
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: How big+ how much forest has been destroyed of Amazon
Largest in world- 8 million km2. Over 600,000 km2 destroyed since 1970.
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Reasons for deforestation in Amazon
From 2000-2005:
-60& cattle ranching
-33% small-scale subsistence farming
-logging
-mining, urbanisation, road contruction, dams+fires
-1% Large-scale commercial farming
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Environmental impacts deforestation of Amazon
-Number of endangered species increased from 218 in 1989, to 628 in 2008
-Amazon stores 100 billion tonnes Carbon- global warming
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Social impacts deforestation of Amazon
-Brazilian rubber tappers lost livelihoods-rubber trees cut down
-Native tribes forced to move -Guarani tribe Brazil moved
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Economic impacts deforestation of Amazon
-2008 Brazil made $6.9 billion from cattle ranching
-Mining industry creates jobs lots of people- Peru mining 3100 people
TROPICAL RAINFOREST: Amazon sustainable managing techniques used
-Peru plans replant 100,000km2 by 2018
-Brazil banned Mahogany logging 2001
-Brazilian forest code landowners have keep 50-80% land forest