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AP Lang Review Flashcards
Terms in this set (26)
A comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way.
Example: The tall student, easily visible in a crowd, drew other students to him like a lighthouse draws ships to the shore.
Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another.
Example: His mother's death was an ocean wave that knocked him off of his already unsteady footing and swept him out to sea.
Compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one.
Example: Trying to find the essence of humanity is a bit like raking leaves. You take a bunch of leaves, in this case representing qualities of humanity, and try to group them together. But the groups get too big, and they collapse, then you try to rake them back into piles but they simply break into smaller pieces, and after a few rotations of grouping, collapsing, and breaking, you decide to leave the problem alone and just let nature take its course.
A type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, or vice versa.
Example: "Come help me with this problem," said Charles. "After all, two heads are better than one."
A metaphor where the metaphorical image is closely associated with the actual word, but is not directly a part of that word.
Example: The Church recently admitted to the possibility of alien life.
A metaphor that gives an animal or inanimate object human-like qualities.
Example: The artist's brush skipped across the page, its tip dancing among clouds of vibrant color.
Interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent.
Example: I curse you, Xbox, you bane of productivity, you destroyer of self-control and focus.
A short, informal reference to a famous person or event.
Example: Stories of this event will be passed down through the ages, growing and changing in a style reminiscent to stories of the Trojan War.
An adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject.
Example: As we walked through the frenzied city streets, we were assailed by angry lights and laughing, yelling car horns.
A figure of addition and emphasis which intentionally employs a series of conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) not normally found in successive words, phrases, or clauses; the deliberate and excessive use of conjunctions in successive words or clauses, often slowing the tempo or rhythm.
Example: We talked and laughed and cried and laughed some more, all the while remembering that one of us would never do so again.
The omission of conjunctions between clauses, often resulting in a hurried rhythm or vehement effect.
Example: I will lay down my rusted blade, be embraced by the people for whom I have fought so fervently, rest amongst the hills for the remainder of my days, let the memory of my triumphs die, watch a new age of peace come as I go.
A question asked merely for effect with no answer expected. The answer may be obvious or immediately provided by the questioner.
Example: What, then, is the answer? Shall we seek the truth for a hundred years or wait a hundred years hoping that the truth shall find us?
The raising of a question with an immediate answer that usually transitions an argument.
Example: Who, you may ask, will usher in this new era of freedom? The answer is right in front of you, asking the question.
Deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact.
Example: We Native Americans have lived on this land for a good amount of time greater than you white folk.
A particular form of understatement, generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used.
Example: After seeing his failing test score, the student remarked, "Wow, I didn't do too well."
The counterpart of understatement, deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect.
Example: I had a million tests to study for yesterday.
Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.
Example: A wise man sees the world and asks, "Why?"; A happy man sees the world and asks, "Why not?"
A statement which contradicts itself.
Example: One can only have faith in the truth of his beliefs if one never knows if his beliefs are true.
A paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent silence") or adverb-adjective ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit.
Example: That was quite a successful failure.
A play on words which are identical or similar in sound but which have sharply diverse meanings.
Example: Procrastinator's Oath: Due tomorrow? Do tomorrow.
A type of irony in which the person appears to be praising something while he is actually insulting the thing.
Example: As the wrecking ball came down on the building, a nearby construction worker proclaimed, "Look at that grace, that finesse!"
The figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is repeated one or more times at the end of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases.
Example: She was a smart girl, a beautiful girl, a crazy girl, a wonderfully delightful embodiment of perfection of a girl, it's just too bad she was crazy.
The figure of repetition that occurs when the first word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is/are repeated at or very near the beginning of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases; repetition of the initial word(s) over successive phrases or clauses.
Example: Whatever you want, we've got it. Whatever you need, we've got it. Whatever you don't want or need, we've got that too, but we don't expect you to buy it.
The repetition of the last word of one line or clause to begin the next.
Example: We need to rid you of your skepticism. Skepticism leads to doubt. Doubt leads to a lack of commitment. A lack of commitment leads to you not finishing the job, and you not finishing the job leads to me finishing you.
A figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance.
Example: We've got to win this battle, win the war, conquer the nation, build an empire, and, if we ever get around to it, we might as well try to rule the world.
A rhetorical term for a series of three parallel words, phrases, or clauses.
Example: We must not allow them to invade, to defile, to destroy, this holiest of lands.
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