12 terms

DNA & DNA Replication

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DNA
A double-stranded, nucleic acid molecule held together by hydrogen bonds between nucleotides; codes genetic information.
Nucleotide
A subunit of DNA that consists of a sugar, a phosphate and a base
Thymine
Subunit of a nucleotide that pairs with adenine
Cytosine
Subunit of a nucleotide that complements (pairs with) guanine
Protein
A molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and regulate body processes
RNA
A molecule that plays a role in protein production; There are multiple forms with different tasks (messenger and transfer).
Ribosome
A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site where proteins are made (protein synthesis or production)
Messenger RNA
The mirror-like copy of DNA that leaves the nucleus to assist with the making of proteins (protein synthesis) in the ribosome.
Transfer RNA
Delivers amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome in order to make proteins.
Mutation
A change in the number, type or order of bases on an section of DNA; can be harmful or helpful
Substitution
A form of mutation in which a base in the DNA molecule is replaced/used by another wrong one base.
Gene
A string of nucleotides that give the cell information or instructions on specific traits and how to make them.