99 terms

Social System Theory

Social 225 SFA
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The more an individual strives to be perfect, the more the individual becomes alienated from their actual self. What is the term that describes Horney's idea?
Neurotic striving
What do both social systems & role theory emphasize as the most important when viewing an individual?
The environment
When Mead discussed the self as reflexive, what represents the active, spontaneous part of the self?
The "I"
What are Merton's 4 conditions that must be met in order for a theory to be accpeted by the scientific community?
Disinterestedness, Communalism, Organized Skepticism, & Universalism
The idea that knowledge should be separate from the interests of the scientist
Disinterestedness
The belief that one should share work among scientists
Communalism
The belief one should challenge & critically examine others' claims of knowledge, to maintain objective assessment
Organized Skepticism
The central agreement on one knowledge base & methodology
Universalism
Good theory building should include:
careful observations, measurable descriptions, & testing of our hypothesis about the variables we observe
These theories are narrow in scope & address teh behaviors specific to a particular class or level of social system phenomena
Focal theories
General systems theory arose out of response to...
the perceived weakness of classical scientific theory
Statements that define the meaning of each concept in a theory
existence statements
A measure of disorder in the world; chaos
entropy
What theorist sought to analyze behavior as a series of performances, much like what is seen in a movie or theater?
Erving Goffman
Why were social scientists interested in ecological theory?
It provided ways of examining the effects of the environment on the social organization.
A theoretical perspective that seeks to explain human behavior in terms of how the individual actions reflect social influence by using gestures & language
Symbolic interactionism
See the world as "objectively real" and knowledgable by means of methods like observations, surveys, and interviews.
Functionalists
CSWE set forth ___ core competencies required of all social workers.
10
An unintended consequence of this approach was that in the quest to advance psychology, pscyhologists forgot about people
Positive psychology
This theory seeks to help clients learn how to recognize defeating thoughts and correct those thoughts so they can display new coping skills. Homework assignments are used to teach new behaviors.
Cognitive theory
Erikson believed these 2 activities were the most important for the young adult to achieve...
Selecting a partner & choosing a career
Psychosocial theory is said to be _____ when compared to psychoanalytic theory.
limited
This theoretical approach sought to value human resliency as much as it focused on human weakness, enhance client strength as much as it focused on repairing damage, and should try to help ordinary people lead fulfilling lives
positive psychology
Dominant organizing schemes of psychosocial theory include...
Life stage & internal/external determinants of behavior
Name the 3 organizing/central components to psychosocial theory.
Life stage, Psychosocial Crisis, Developmental Activity
This occurs in a family when bondaries are unclear between and among family members. Members may feel guilt/shame or incomplete if they are not meeting all their partners needs all of the time.
Enmeshment
The health or well-being of a system. An ongoing favorable balance between inputs & outputs between a system & the suprasystem
Steady state
Coined from the Greek term holos, which means whole this is viewed as the fundamental unit of any interdependent system
Holons
Sociological theory that is concerned with symbolic communication and heavily relies on using gestures & language to examine the world.
Symbolic interactionism
A major theoretical perspective that is built upon 2 emphasis: using the scientific method & use of analogy between the individual organism & society
Funtionalism
Using different theories for different purposes in practice
Systematic eclecticism
Used to create mutual respect for one another in a relationship
Boundary
Jung used this term to describe when an individual develops a mask to protect the psyche from injury due to interactions from the world.
The persona
Social expectations that the way one person behaves towards another will result in a comporable response from the other person
Norm of Reciprocity
The interacting network of roles that define the expected behavior of the position occupant
Role set
Punishments or penalties that are held against a person due to failures to meet role expecations
Negative Sanction
The rewards & benefits a person gains for meeting role expecations
Positive sanction
Optimal role performance that meets all role expectations & conceptions for a social position in a specific situation
Role Ideal
the absence of social norms
anomie
expecations of members of a social system regarding how they believe an individual in a particular position should behave
Norms
This theory focuses on the family, especially the mother-child relationship; focuses on past relationships that affect a person in the present
Object Relations theory
Process by which we observe others & then apply these observations to our own behavior
modeling
Theorist who developed structural family theory
Salvador Minuchin
In this theory, the interest is in exploring the stages humans go through in terms of what they perceive is right vs. what they perceive is wrong.
Moral Development Theory
Founded Behavioral Leanring Theory
John Watson
Founded Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
Founder of Positive Psychology
Martin Seligman
Founded Rational Emotive Behavioral Theory
Albert Ellis
Founder of Person-centered theory
Carl Rogers
Founder of Cognitive Behavioral
Aaron Beck
Piaget said that at age 6-7, a child begins to finally think in a symbolic manner. What stage does this occur in?
Concrete Operational Thought
Process of gaining at least partial self-control & autonomy in order to lift oneself out of the emotional chaos of the family
Differentiation of the self
Commitment for improving conditions for future generations
Generativity
This theory seeks to explore how behavior is influenced or regulated by environmental conditions.
Behavioral Learning Theory
Self-disclosure in treatment groups should be ___ while in task it should be _
High; Low
Describes social isolation that results from the absence of needed social transactions between family members
Disengagement
The tendency to let our beliefs run wild which may lead to negative thought patterns in which weaknesses are seen as major deficits
Catastrophizing
Planned process of termination in groups
Adjourning
Planning phase in which group cohesion is identified & group purposes are formed
Forming
Process of sorting out initial perceptions, relationships, hierarchies, and expectations
Storming
Working phase
Performing
process group leaders use to keep passive members involved
Decentering
Seligman's work in positive psychology led to this concept
Learned helplessness
Name 2 conditions of the rational, differentiated person.
Can learn from experience, more flexible, more adaptable, more self-sufficient
Central proposition of psychosocial theory states
all humans must confront crises associated at every life stage
Process in group that suggests people have pent up feelings related to past events; if they express feelings, they can reduce tension & healthier
Catharsis
What does B in Ellis' ABC model of cognitive theory stand for
Belief
Dispute was defined in the ABCDE model as
The therapeutic process of challening or contronting interpretations made by a person of the events occurring in his/her life.
The focus of humanism is specifically on...
uniqueness of the individual
A developmental level typically defined in terms of epigenetic theory
Stage
Integration of new experiences & objects into existing schemes
Assimilation
To adjust in order to accomplish a fit
Accomodation
A tendency to seek & build order
Organization
The belief that one can control his/her own behavior & be responsible for his/her actions
Self-efficacy
The primary difference between syntropic & entropic systems is that syntropic systems are
in the process of growing and becoming more complex
Claiming/believing something is true when it is not
Denial
Redirecting emotions to a different target instead of the one you are angry/sad about
Displacement
Seeks to reduce stress by thinking of events in a cold, detached manner. Focus is on the intellectual component
Intellectualization
Overreacting in the opposite manner to the fear
Reaction formation
Freud's idea; our sense of morality as well as ideals we acquire from parents & society
Superego
Adler's description of the process by which we are born with a desire to help others & improve society
Social interest
Primary impetus for behavior in psychoanalytic theory states behavior arises from..
instinctual, sexual, and AGGRESSIVE drives
consequences administered by others in a social system for the performance of a social role
Role sanctions
The way a person believes he/she should behave in her role as a social worker
conceptions
A social system that has no shared sense of social expectations for behavior is called
Anomie
When we attempt to create & maintain an image we want others to perceive, we are atttempting to use..
Impression management
Overemphasis on personality as a determinant of behaivor
Fundamental Attribution Error
Expectations of people in a social system regarding how an individual in a specific situation should behave is referred to as:
Norms
Most important stage in psychosocial theory
Life stage
Believed psychology should focus on understanding, predicting, and controlling behavior rather than how an individual feels
John Watson
Recognized some behaviors were natural for a dog and did not require additional teaching. Realized a dog could be conditioned to respond to a particular person or sound.
Ivan Pavlov
Undifferentiated, Rational Person is...
Unable to learn from experiene, related to co-dependency, and may become trapped in a reactive or rigid pattern of behavior, marked by a dependence on others
The sending of a message about a message; receiver must interpret
meta-communications
Family systems views the family as:
an irrational emotional system
Bowen created this to help us understand the multigenerational structure of families
Genogram
extensive use of role modeling as a learning process
imitative behavior
series of concepts and definitions that are instructive and relevant in forming social systems.
Field Theory- Kurt
general theory of social transactions that is based on economic model.
Exchange Theory- Homan & Blau
person comes to self understanding by internalizing the idea about how he/she is perceived by others.
Looking Glass theory- Charles
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