These compounds are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all of these have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule.
Glucose, fructose and galactose are the 3 of the 6 most important________in nutrition and are monosaccharides.
Maltose, sucrose and lactose
These are 3 of the 6 most important sugars in nutrition and are disaccharides.
Commonly known as blood sugar and serves as an essential energy source for all the body's activities.
A chemical reaction in which water is released as two reactants combine to form one larger product.
The three ____________important in nutrition all have the same number and kinds of atoms, but in different arrangements.
The disaccharide __________, consists of two glucose units and is produced whenever starch breaks down.
Fructose and glucose together form __________. Depending on extent to which it is refined, this product becomes brown, white, and powdered sugars found at grocery stores.
The combination of galactose and glucose makes the disaccharide ____________, the principal carbohydrate of milk.
Glucose, fructose and galactose (monosaccharides) and maltose, sucrose, and lactose (disaccharides),
The six sugars important to nutrition are:
Two monosaccharides can be linked together by a __________ reaction to form a disaccharide and water.
A disaccharide can be broken into its two monosaccharides by a ____________ reaction using water.
These contain many glucose units and, in some cases, a few other monosaccharides strung together.
This carbohydrate is found to only a limited extent in meats and not at all in plants. Food is not a significant source of this carbohydrate.
This carbohydrate performs an important role in the body; it stores glucose for future use.
liver and muscles
Glycogen is an animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; manufactured in the __________ and __________ as a storage form of glucose.
These molecules are packed side by side in grains such as wheat or rice, in root crops an tubers such as yams and potatoes, and in legumes such as peas and beans.
These are the richest food source of starch, providing much of the food energy for people all over the world.
These are the structural parts of plants and thus are found in all plant-derived foods - vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes.
Dietary fibers differ from starches in that the bonds between their monosaccharides cannot be ________ _____ by digestive enzymes in the body.
Because dietary fibers pass through the body, they contribute no monosaccharides, and therefore little or no _________.
glucose, fructose and galactose
The 3 monosaccharides are ____________, ____________, and _________________.
maltose, sucrose and lactose
The 3 disaccharides are _____________, _______________, and ______________.
glycogen, starches and fibers
The 3 polysaccharides are __________, _______________, and ____________.
The short chains of glucose units that result from the breakdown of starch are known as ____________.
In the mouth, thoroughly chewing high-fiber foods slows eating and stimulates the flow of ___________.
Because food is in the mouth for a short time, very little carbohydrate digestion takes place there; it begins again in the ________ ___________.
_________ is the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. This determines how much time passes between meals.
A major carbohydrate-digesting enzyme, _________ ________ is released through the pancreatic duct and into the small intestine.
maltase, sucrase and lactase.
The specific enzymes that break down specific disaccharides are _________, __________ and ___________.
Starches and sugars are called ___________ ____________ because human digestive enzymes break them down for the body's use.
Fibers are called ____________ _____________ because human digestive enzymes cannot break their bonds.
sugars and starches
Within one to four hours after a meal, all the _______ and _______ have been digested.
Only _______ remain in the digestive tract and this delays absorption of other nutrients and also delays gastric emptying.
Most fiber passes intact through the digestive tract to the _______ ___________. It is here that bacterial enzymes digest fiber.
________ holds water; regulates bowel activity; and binds substances such as bile, cholesterol, and some minerals, carrying them out of the body.
Glucose is unique in that it can be absorbed to some extent through the lining of the _______, but for the most part, nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine.
As blood from the small intestine circulates through the ______, cells there take up fructose and galactose and convert them to other compounds, most often to glucose.
In the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, the body breaks down starches into the disaccharide _________.
When monosaccharides arrive at the ________, they are converted mostly to glucose to provide energy for the cells' work.
The ________ help to regulate the passage of food through the GI system and slow absorption of glucose, but they contribute little, if any, energy.