Case study and single-case research designs
Lecture March 24th Case study and single-case research designs
Terms in this set (52)
a form of qualitative or mixed method research
A case study involves
an intense examination of an individual, group, or organization
Case studies are referred to as
ethnography, field study, and participant observation
case studies usually examine
the relationship of, and interaction of, all variable in order to provide as complete an understanding of an event or situation as possible
case study advantage (information)
may provide an abundant/fertile source of information
Case study advantage (intensity)
possible to study a characteristic/attribute quite intensively (more than quantitative
Case study Advantage (cases)
can focus on rare, unique, and extreme cases (aka, small "n" study)
Case study disadvantage (the method)
this method is not scientific - nonrandom selection, non-generalizable conclusions
case study disadvantage (observer)
observer may be biased
case study disadvantage (subject)
Subject is usually aware that they are being studied - Hawthorn effect - try to please, impress
case study disadvantage (internal validity)
Many threats to internal validity may occur such as maturation, testing, history
An experimenter has a high degree of ____________ _________________when it shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of unknown variables.
Value of case study (source of)
source of ideas and hypotheses
Value of case study (develop)
source for developing therapy techniques
Value of case study (study ?)
study of rare phenomena
Value of case study (evidence for)
persuasive and motivational value - provides evidence for grants application that would fund larger empirical study
Case study research questions
will determine the type of case study
explanatory case study
To describe and find possible explanations for the phenomenon under investigation
Exploratory case study
May ask all the who what where how why questions because not much is known about the topic
Descriptive case study
A detailed descriptive analysis of a specific case = everything they have done, and the results
4 things needed in designing a case study
research question to study, what data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to analyze that data
Yin (1993) study's questions
usually fall into one of the following four categories:
Actual or theoretical client questions
Brain teaser questions
Graphic interpretation questions
Yin (1993) study's propositions (if any)
statements that help direct attention to something that should be examined in the case study;
Example: "Organizations collaborate because they derive
Propositions will tell you where to look for relevant
Example: Define and ascertain the specific benefits to each
Yin (1993) study's units of analysis(es)
The unit of analysis defines what a "case" is in a case
Example: a unit of analysis (case) may be an individual, and
the case study may be the life history of that person
Yin (1993) logic linking the data to the propositions
One possibility is pattern matching
Describe several potential patterns, then compare the case
study data to the patterns and see which one is closer
Yin (1993) criteria for interpreting the findings
The purpose of the data analysis and interpretation phase is to transform the data collected into credible evidence about the development of the intervention and its performance.
types of data that can be collected in case studies
documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation (may include video), participant observation, and artifacts
Rigor in research
is the application of discipline, adherence to detail, and strict accuracy in the pursuit of excellence in the conduct of research. A study conducted with rigor has a tightly controlled study design (reducing the potential for bias), precise tools for measuring the concepts of interest, and a representative sample. In critiquing research, rigor is assessed by evaluating the reasoning and precision used in conducting the study
Case studies can be evaluated;
in one of two ways; holistically or through coding
Evaluating data = holistically
A hallmark feature of the ethnographic approach is a holistic perspective, based on the premise that human behavior and culture are complicated phenomena and are composed of, and influenced by, a multitude of factors. These might include historical precedents, the physical context in which people live and work, the social structures in which individuals are embedded, and the symbolic environment in which they act
(e.g., language, shared meanings).
Evaluating data = coding
using labels to classify and assign meaning to pieces of information—helps you to make sense of qualitative data, such as responses to open-ended survey questions. Codes answer the questions, "What do I see going on here?" or "How do I categorize the information?" Coding enables you to organize large amounts of text and to discover patterns that would be difficult to detect by reading alone.
A single case study should include 4 features;
continuous assessment, baseline assessment, stability of performance, and the use of different phases
refers to the use of repeated observations of an action/behavior over time. Observation may take place several times a day or multiple times per week or months
generally refers to the observation of an action/behavior for several days before an intervention is applied
Stability of performance
need data (i.e., measuring action/behavior) to be consistent/steady over time. Variability or fluctuation of measurements would make it difficult to draw any conclusions about the intervention.
this simply refers to different conditions that the individual or case unit is exposed to during the study. A phase may be a baseline condition where there is no intervention or treatment condition.
is the simplest of the single-case design options. It is defined as A (baseline--no treatment) and B (treatment or intervention phase)
Analysis of A-B design
is simply a comparison of the two sets of measurements (A) and (B) = whats difference does the intervention (treatment) make?
A-B design requirement
you need to have repeated measurements of the problem or condition before your treatment (A) and then repeated measurements during the treatment period (B).
A-B design limitations
A-B option does not provide ENOUGH evidence for a cause and effect between the treatment and the behavior or action being measured
if change in behavior (or whatever you are measuring) occurred during B and is actually due to the treatment or invention, then change should disappear when B is removed and the measurement of behavior should return to the baseline.
It may not be fair or ethical to end the study on an a phase this leaves the participant somewhat "stranded" without treatment
This design strengthens the ability to draw a cause-and-effect conclusion between the intervention or treatment and the behavior.
Ethical issue A-B-A-B
it could be considered unethical to return a participant (or case) to baseline in order to determine causality.
A-B-A and A-B-A-B problem
if you are teaching the participant something like CBT it will be difficult to return them to "not knowing" in order to test intervention effectiveness.
Multiple baseline design
In this design the effects of an intervention are assessed across several participants, behavior, and/or settings (and time intervals).
Benefits of Multiple baseline design (confounds)
It may help to control for confounds by introducing treatment at different times for different participants, behaviors. and/or settings.
Benefits of Multiple baseline design (no baseline)
Multiple baseline designs do not require any reversals, end in an intervention condition, and do not require a return to a baseline condition to demonstrate experimental control.
Limitations of Multiple baseline (monitoring)
measurements/behavior must be monitored continuously across all conditions. This can be time consuming and often expensive.
refers to the examination of data (charting, graphing, eyeing) and determining whether the intervention had an effect by VISUAL INSPECTION.
Case study order of components YIN
1. study question, 2. Propositions, 3. units of analysis, 4. logical 5. linking of the data to propositions, criteria for interpreting
Case study order of components (Spray)
1. Theory, 2. Case, 3. Introduce complaints, 4. history 5. Assessments (e.g. I. Q.) 6. Conceptualization, 7. Course of treatment, 8. Data
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