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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Ch. 5
Terms in this set (70)
After the 7 yrs war, how did the English see the colonies? What did they see as the goal for the colonies?
as subordinate; goal for colonies was to raise revenue for mother country
What did the British believe the colonists owed after the 7 yrs war? How did the colonies feel about this?
British believed the colonies should help pay for the debt; the colonies felt the British government could not tax them without representation in Parliament
What was the defended concept in England when the colonists suggested they were underrepresented?
virtual representation - the delegates in England represented the colonists as englishmen
What did the British pass after the war to combat smuggling?
writs of assistance
Which act was passed to increase the severity of the charge for smuggling and make foreign sugars less affordable so the British companies could make more money?
the sugar act
Which act was passed to reaffirm and strengthen the navigation acts?
Which act added new materials to the list of the Navigation Act, prohibiting them from being sold but through English ports?
What group of people did the sugar act primarily affect?
What act was a direct tax on a stamp required to be put on all printed materials?
the stamp act
How did the tax from the stamp act differ from the effects of the sugar act?
most, if not all, colonists used printed materials, so the stamp act affected all colonists not just merchants
After the stamp act was passed, what phrase circulated that identified the colonists' frustration?
no taxation without representation
What did the Stamp Act congress with delegates from all 9 colonies except Georgia agree to do in opposition of the stamp act?
boycott British goods (until it was repealed)
What famous landmark in Boston came to be through meetings about organizing opposition to the stamp act?
What committees were placed in all of the colonies to encourage opposition to the stamp act and attempt to enforce the boycott?
committees of correspondence
What group of rebellious colonists in Boston rose through opposition of the stamp act?
sons of liberty
What act was passed in response to the repealing of the stamp act in 1766? What did it say?
declaratory act - the British Parliament could levy taxes outside of elected assemblies (did not have to be approved)
What were groups of wealthy residents in the backcountry called who felt underrepresented in colonial assemblies?
What acts imposed new taxes on imported goods and new smuggling regulations after the stamp act was repealed? Where was the revenue from this act supposed to be directed?
Townshend acts; revenue directed towards colonial governors and judges
How did the colonists respond to the Townshend acts?
they attempted to ban importation of British goods
What was the concept of homespun virtue? What was this supposed to decrease?
the concept of homespun virtue was that Americans should not rely on British goods but home-made goods instead; it was supposed to decrease the debt of colonial planters to British merchants
Who were the "daughters of liberty"?
Women that spun clothes and created goods in support of the homespun virtue cause
Why were royal troops initially placed in Boston?
merchants were continually violating trade regulations; soldiers (over 4000) there to enforce taxes
How did the looming number of British soldiers affect the overall colonial population?
being a soldier was only a part time job; thus, these soldiers were taking jobs from other colonists
What was the Boston Massacre? What were the casualties? When did it occur?
the Boston Massacre was a snowball fight between colonists and the British that escalated into armed conflict; 5 colonists died, including Crispus Attucks (seen as first martyr of revolution); it occurred on March 5, 1770
Who circulated a painting that depicted British soldiers firing into a seemingly innocent crowd of colonists (propaganda)?
Why did the colonies eventually abandon the boycott of British goods after the Stamp act was passed?
colonial merchants need money and no more trade interruption
What did the Tea Act entail on the colonies?
low priced tea from the east India company was dumped into the colonies; tax was raised on imported teas
How did the colonists respond to the tea act?
Boston tea party- dumped over 300 chests of tea into the Boston harbor on December 16, 1773 (dressed as Indians)
What did Parliament pass in response to the Boston Tea Party? What did these acts enforce?
Parliament passed the intolerable acts; port of Boston was closed until the tea was paid for, the government appointed their own assembly (it was no longer elected), quartering (soldiers stayed in colonists homes by force)
What colonial association was created in response and in opposition of the intolerable acts in 1774?
the first continental congress
What was the goal of the First Continental Congress?
the goal was to hire prominent colonists together to discuss grievances
What phrase began by Patrick Henry at the first continental congress?
"give me liberty or give me death"
What associations were adopted by the first continental congress that were to enforce opposition? What were these oppositions?
continental association; called for an almost complete halt to trade with Britain and West Indies (except for rice, SC) and encouraged domestic manufacturing
Why was the first continental congress initially halted?
they were paused temporarily until the colonial demands were met
What liberties circulated after the first Continental congress was called?
the right to resist oppressive authority, natural rights (from God)
When did the second continental congress convene?
What caused the battles at Lexington and concord, and when did they occur? What were the casualties in the end?
The British marched from Boston to concord to seize arms; groups of farmers successfully fought them off (April 19, 1775); 47 Americans and 73 British dead
What was the British victory were they disloged militiamen from Breed's Hill?
battle of bunker hill
What organization raised the continental army? Where did these soldiers have experience? Who was their commander?
second continental congress; had experience from 7 yrs war; George Washington was their commander
What was the group of colonists who did not support independence from the British? What were their reasons?
loyalists; they did not feel safe without the protection of Great Britain, did not want to go against their military
What was Lord Dunmore's Proclamation?
Freedom was granted to any slaves who would escape their plantations and join the British cause
What was offered from the second continental congress to King George III that was seen as a "last ditch effort" for reconciliation between the colonies and Britain? Did King George accept?
the olive branch petition; King George rejected
What did Thomas Paine's "Common sense" attack? What successes did it suggest if the colonies were to gain independence? What was the purpose of it?
the institution of the monarchy; it suggested the revenues would be much higher if the colonists were lifted from the navigation acts and more open to trade and that the colonists would not have to suffer from imperial wars any longer
Why was "common sense" so popular?
it was accessible to all common men; it was written in simple language
When did the second continental congress officially call for independence?
the spring of 1776
What was the purpose of the declaration of independence?
the purpose of the declaration was to get all 13 colonies to support the cause for independence
How was the declaration of independence structured? What did it states?
it was structured as a list of grievances towards King George III "he has..."; it stated the natural, god given rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; it stated that the people could abolish the government if it threatens their rights
What documents caused the ultimate shift from the colonists wanting the rights of Englishmen to the rights of humans?
"common sense" and the declaration of independence
What were the strengths of the British going into the revolutionary war?
large military, navy; government had more money; army had more experience
What did the British need to accomplish in order to win the war?
they needed to conquer all 13 colonies
What were the strengths of the Colonists going into the war?
they knew the land; had more support at home; had some experience in the 7 yrs war; had Washington's leadership
What were the British's weaknesses going into the war?
had more to accomplish; had little to no support at home; had poor commanders
What were the weaknesses of the Americans in the war?
had no actual government/economy; only operated on local militias, no real established army
What did the colonists need to accomplish to win the war?
needed to make the British tired of fighting
What persuaded Washington to allow African Americans to serve in the war?
Lord Dunmores proclamation
What occurred in 1776 to demoralize Washington's men/shrink his troops?
How pushed Washington into New Jersey and many/most of his men were captured or deserted
What attack (when/where) was a huge win for Washington? How was it successful?
Washington and 2,400 men marched 9 miles to Trenton NJ to launch a surprise attack on the Hessian soldiers there on Dec 26, 1776
Where did Washington launch an attack following the Trenton attack on January 3, 1777?
What was the British goal for conquering the north in the war?
to isolate New England
Why was Burgoyne surrounded by soldiers at Saratoga in 1777? How did the British fail to communicate?
Burgoyne was heading south to meet Howe, but Howe moved to attack Philadelphia (Burgoyne did not know)
What was the significance of the battle of Saratoga?
it convinced the French that the Americans could win the war
Where did Washington wait in the winter of 1777-1778 for French help? How many of his men died?
valley forge; 2000/10,000 (1/5)
What treaty brought France into the war?
treaty of amnity in 1778
Why did the British move their war effort south?
they hoped to enlist the support of the loyalists and encourage slaves to escape
What two large southern cities did the British capture in December 1778 and May 1780?
savannah and charleston
How did the southern militias keep pushing Cornwallis and other British troops north? Who led these tactics?
hit and run tactics (they knew the land); Francis mason "swamp fox"
What battle ultimately pushed Cornwallis to Yorktown?
battle of cowpens
How were the Americans successful in trapping Cornwallis at Yorktown and forcing him to surrender?
the Americans led by Washington closed Cornwallis in on land and the French navy blocked their escape by sea
What did the Battle of Yorktown cause the English to lost?
support for the war
When was the treaty of Paris signed? What did it entail for the colonists and for the British?
september 1783; the colonists got all of the land from Canada to Florida east of the Ohio river; the British asked that loyalists not be persecuted and able to retain their land, and they kept Canada and the West Indies
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