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Organizational Structure and Change
Terms in this set (27)
Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.
the degree to which jobs within an organization are standardized and rules are written and explicitly articulated.
Span of Control
the optimal number of subordinates a manager supervises or should supervise
characterized by an overall narrow span of management and a relatively large number of hierarchical levels. Better for security needs of employees.
characterized by an overall broad span of management and relatively few hierarchical levels. Better for employee self-actualization.
groups together people with similar skills who perform similar tasks
departments represent the unique products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving
an organizational structure with a narrow span of control and a high degree of formalization and centralization
an organizational structure in which authority is decentralized to middle and first-line managers and tasks and roles are left ambiguous to encourage employees to cooperate and respond quickly to the unexpected.
A cross between a traditional functional structure with a product structure. Specifically, employees reporting to department managers are also pooled together to form project or product teams.
Unity of Command
a management principle that workers should report to just one boss
organization in which there are no barriers to information flow
An organization where all the nonessential functions are outsourced.
cooperative agreements between potential or actual competitors
An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
-these organizations vigorously study competitors.
the observation that computing power roughly doubles every two years.
Forces Which Cause Organizational Change
1. Workforce Demographics
4. Market Conditions
5. Organizational Growth (startup-large company)
6. Poor Company performance
7. Resistance to Change
the most negative reaction to a proposed change attempt.
Disturbance by changes without voicing opinions about them.
going along with proposed company changes with little enthusiasm
defenders of the new way and actually encourage others around them to give support to the change effort as well
Why Do People Resist Change?
disrupted habits, personality, feelings of uncertainty, fear of failure, personal impact of change, prevalence of change, perceived loss of power
Lewin's Three-Stage Process of Change
unfreeze, change, refreeze
Kotter's Eight Steps for Leading Organizational Change
an arrangement whereby two part-time employees share one full-time job
involves proposals at lower levels being signed and passed along to higher level management in an effort to build consensus
cultures low in uncertainty avoidance
Are more comfortable with change
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AQA A Level Business - Theories Models
AQA A Level Business - Definitions
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AQA A Level Business - Unit 9
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