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Cold war & independence movements
Terms in this set (73)
USA and USSR; possesed vast military and economic power (atomic bomb)
created June 1945 in San Francisco; based in New York; 5 permanent security council
1947-1952; USA gave $13 billion in economic aid to Western Europe; USSR and Eastern Europe do not participate.
1948-49; USSR cuts off Berlin from Allies after West Germany was unified; creates East Germany.
Allies sends supplies to Berlin.
The Iron Curtain
The division of Europe; West vs. East
Churchill speech; describes the divide of Europe b/t free and communist
Containment Policy; take all measures to prevent communism from spreading
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949- 12 member military alliance
1955; 7 communist alliance
Mao Ze Tung
Communist defeat nationalist in 1949
Chiang Kai Shek
Nationalist leader flees to taiwan in 1949
1950-1953;1st fight of cold war end in a draw, Kirea is divided into North and South at the 18th parallel
Governor of occupied Japan and commander of US and UN forces in Korea until fired by Truman
Kim Il Sung
Communist dictator of North Korea
1956: tried to test USSR new leadership- are crushed brutally, the US does not intervene
USSR: Sputnik (1957) first man in space
USA: first man on the moon
US President 1961-1963: Stood up tp Krushchev and Cuban Missiles.
1961-1989: Built to prevent East Germans/ Berliners from fleeing to the West
soviet leader after stalin dies; de stalinization policies; overthrown in 1964
Cuban Communist revolutionary and dictator; overthrew US backed ruler in 1959
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 1962: USA threatens to attack Cuba if USSR does not pull nukes out; very close to global destruction
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
West germany and Japan become the 3rd and 2nd largest economies in the world within 25 years of wars end.
USA foreign policy belief that if one nation falls to communism; the others near it will fall (vietnam)
Ho Chi Minh
vietnamese nationalist/communist leader led revolt vs. french rule and US occupation of South Vietnam
1964-1975: Vietnamese civil War- North Vietnam defeats USA and South Vietnam
1968: mass North vietnamese offensive; US begins to believe they might not win
Soviet leader 1965-1980, took a hard line against dissent to communist rule; crushed protests in eastern europe; invaded afghanistan
Summer 1968: Czechs try to create a kinder gentler communism; warsaw pact crushes movement
1970s: USA and USSR try and lower tensions by releasing SALT treaty lowering number of nukes; nixon visits china.
1979-1989: USSR invades to prop up communist rule; opposed by mujahedeen (islamic freedom fighters)
reformed chinas economy and implemented on child policy; led to rapid chinese economic growth
British Prime Minister 1979-1990 Close ally to Reagan and USA, proponent of free trade and smaller government
1981-1988; took hard line on USSR (evil empire) increased military spending (star wars) supported gorbachev
youngest soviet leader (54) began glasnost (openness); perestroika (economic restructuring reforms)
overhall and improve economy, cut back military spending, leave afghanistan, loosen grip on eastern europe
pope john paul
new pope, first from poland
New Polish leader of solidarity lead to free elections in april 1989
Fall of Berlin wall
November 1989 thousands of protestors force open the Berlin Wall and begin to tear it down, the cold war is over.
End of USSR
august 1991; communist hardliners try to overthrow gorbachev; moscow mayor boris yeltsin leads oppositionl; september 6, 1991 USSR ceases to exist
Mohandas K. Gandhi
founder of indian national independence movement; assassinated by a hindu for trying to gain equal treatment for "untouchables"
Prime minister of independent India; kept India neutral in Cold War. (to honor Gandhi all of his children took the name Gandhi)
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
first Prime Minister of Pakistan; demanded partition from India for Muslims; led to mass killings and chaos; died after two years of rule.
nehru's daugher; Prime Minister of India, assassinated in 1984; reformed India's agriculture and helped create nuclear program with aid from USSR.
Dictator of Libya
founder of Pan-African Indpendence movement; from Ghana.
Founder of Kenya; led Mau-Mau resistance
Leader of the African National Congress; first black president of South Africa.
Mobutu Sese Seko
Corrupt dictator of Zaire.
David Ben Gurion
First president of Israel ( created by the UN)
Israeli leader during wars w/ Arab states. Strong ally of USA.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
President of Egypt; founder of Pan-Arabism; close ties to USSR (aswan high dam)
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
leader of Iran; until overthorn by Islamic Fundamentalism (1979)
leader of Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
Shia religious leader of Iranian Islamic fundamentalist movement.
leader of Ba'ath party and dictator of Iraq. civil disobedience- Non-violent resistance to government laws/policies (ex. Gandhi and martin luther king)
truth life force- gandhis non-violent ideology.
Jewish nationalism and desire for homeland in palestine.
nations who remained neutral during cold war (ex. India)
south africa's racial segregation laws; similar to USA's "Jim Crow"
Global movement for pride in African hertiage and history
Arab nationalism and desire to unify and bring together Arab states.
First, Second & Third World
Terms to describe the rich, communist, and poor nations of the world. (ex. 1-japan, 2 romania, 3- peru)
Algerian Civil War
1954-1962: France tries to keep colony; brutal conflit and ultimate falure.
Egypt takes suez canal; GB, France, and israel attack; USA makes them back down.
Six Day War-
1967: israel crushes Arab nations; huge embaressment for Nasser; Israel takes West Bank, Gaza, Golan, and Sinai.
Yom Kippur War
1973: Egypt leads attack again; Arabs do better but USA steps in to stop fighting.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; place oil embargo on USA; leads to huge economic problems.
Camp David Accords
1977: President Jimmy Carter convinces Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) to sign a peace treaty; Israel returns sinai and egypt recognizes Israel's right to exist.
(1987-1994; 2000-2005): Palestinian "uprising in West bank and Gaza strip demanding Israel withdraw from their land and for the creation of Palestinian state.
1979: Shah Pahlavi wanted a westernized Iran; abused his power and uses secret police to punish opponents; Ayatollah Khomeini leads an Islamist revolution that forces the Shah to flee and establishes Shari (Islamic) Law; takes US embassy workers hostage when USA does not send Shah back to Iran.
a very conservative Islamic movement that wants to return Islamic nations to "fundamental" Islamic values and laws; opposed to "westernization" modernization and USA& USSR; also opposed to "secular" Islamic rulers like Nasser, Sadat and Hussein
Iran Iraq war
1980-1988: Hussein vs. Khomeini; Iraq attack Iran; over 1 million killed and war ends in a stalemate; USA backs Iraq; secret deal w/ Iran
The Gulf War
1990-1991: Iraq attacks Kuwait; Hussein thinks no one will stand up to him; UN condemns act; USA leads an international coalition (france, GB and other Arab states) to defeat Iraq; worried of Hussein's control of 20% of worlds oils reserves and potential to attack Saudi Arabia; Hussein stays in power in 2003.
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