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Exam #1 Material GSU DPT Fall 2019 Dr. Henderson
Terms in this set (73)
Why is there a large surge in the teaching and use of EBP?
- Unexplained variation in clinical practice to manage the same conditions
- Continued rise of healthcare costs
- Medical errors
What are the uses for evidence in clinical practice?
- Selecting the best techniques to accurately identify and treat patient's clinical problems
- Enhance efficacy and effectiveness of interventions
1st step of process of EBP
Generate a clinical question in response to a patient's clinical problem
2nd step of process of EBP
Search for relevant evidence to answer the question
3rd step of process of EBP
Critique the results of the literature and how they may impact your clinical problem
4th step of process of EBP
Determine the applicability to your patient
5th step of process of EBP
Consider the evidence in reference to the patient's values and preference
6th step of process of EBP
Collaborate with the patient to identify and implement the next steps in their plan of care
What is the definition of "evidence"?
"Any empirical observation about the apparent relation between events constitutes potential evidence"
What are some characteristics to consider when searching the evidence?
- Does the study address the clinical question the PT is trying to answer?
- Are the study subjects similar to the patient for whom you are trying to answer the question?
- Is the technique or timing of the article congruent with current practice?
What is EBP based on?
The foundation that quality of care is dependent on the clinician's ability to make clinical decisions using the best available evidence.
What are the parts of the 3-legged stool?
- Best available evidence
- Clinician's experience
- Patient perspective
What are the types of research?
- Quantitative vs. qualitative
- Basic vs. applied
- Experimental vs. nonexperimental
- Quasi experimental
What is quantitative research?
Measurement of outcomes using numerical data under controlled and standardized conditions
What is the advantage of quantitative research?
Ability to perform statistical analyses on subject data
Quantitative research is driven by what?
Qualitative research is generally conducted under what conditions?
What does qualitative research use?
Open-ended questions, interviews, and observations
What can qualitative research do?
May describe the state of conditions, explore associations between variables, or formulate a theory or hypothesis
What is basic research AKA?
Where is basic research typically performed?
In a lab
Why is basic research performed?
To obtain data that can be used to develop or test a theory
Basic research isn't concerned with what?
Practical use of knowledge
What's an example of basic research?
Study regarding how platelets function
What kind of research is most clinical research?
What does applied research attempt to do?
Solve practical problems and test theories which impact clinical practice
Applied research is generally tested under what?
Actual clinical/practice conditions
What is translational research?
Application of basic scientific findings to clinical practice and/or formation of scientific questions from clinical situations
- "Bedside to bench and back to bedside"
What does experimental research compare?
Conditions or intervention groups
What does experimental research aim to find?
What does the researcher do in experimental research?
Manipulates a variable and observes the resultant variation in the other variable(s)
Is experimental research randomized?
Is experimental research controlled?
What is nonexperimental research AKA?
Nonexperimental data is more what in nature?
Descriptive or exploratory
Is there control over variables in nonexperimental research?
No direct control
Is nonexperimental research randomized?
Is nonexperimental research controlled?
What is quasi experimental research?
It's either randomized or controlled, but not both
What is the highest possible level of research?
Level 1a evidence
Level 1b evidence
Individual RCT with narrow CI
Level 1c evidence
"All or none study"
Level 2a evidence
Systematic review of cohort studies
Level 2b evidence
Individual cohort study
Level 2c evidence
Level 3a evidence
Systematic review of case-control study
Level 3b evidence
Individual case-control study
Level 4 evidence
Case-series, cohort or case-control study that it did define comparison groups adequately or did not measure outcomes objectively or have a sufficient follow-up
Level 5 evidence
"All or none"
Study in which some or all patients died before treatment became available and now none die
Two groups of subjects are followed for a period of time. Could be classified as either quasi experimental or nonexperimental
Nonexperimental research that evaluates outcomes of care in real life clinical situations
Retrospective, epidemiological research design used to evaluate the relationship between a potential risk factor and a disease
What do the sections in a research report include?
When is the abstract prepared?
After the completion of the entire manuscript
How long is an abstract?
Concise (typically <150 words)
What does the abstract do?
Summarizes the content of the article
- Purpose of the study
- Number and type of subjects
- Basic procedures used in the study
- Summary of results and conclusions
The abstract must be able to do what?
What does the introduction begin with?
A literature review which reflects the relevant background information that supports the theoretical rationale for the study
What should the introduction end with?
A statement of the specific study purpose, variables that are going to be studied, and research hypotheses or questions
What should the introduction show about the research?
Innovation and significance
What should the introduction be?
Clear, concise, compelling
What is included in the methods section?
- Description of subjects
- Statement regarding informed consent and IRB
- Description of equipment and data collection procedures
- Operational definitions for all variables
- Data analysis section
What is included under description of subjects in the methods section?
How many subjects, sampling design, inclusion/exclusion, group assignment
How is the description of equipment and data collection procedures presented?
In chronological order
What is included in the data analysis portion of the methods section?
Procedures used to reduce and analyze data
What is in the results section?
Report of results, including outcome of statistical tests
What are the two primary principles of the results section?
- Tables and figures should not duplicate the narrative
- No discussion of results; solely reporting the results
What is the discussion portion of the research article?
The researcher's interpretation of the results as they relate to the study purpose
What can the author express in the discussion section?
What should the discussion section include?
- Importance of the results
- Limitations of the study
- Suggestions for future research
- Clinical implications
What is included in the conclusion portion of the research article?
Brief statement of the purpose and primary study findings
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