Praxis II-Multiple Subjects-Math section
Terms in this set (40)
The product is the same regardless of the order of factors.
The product is the same regardless of grouping.
Multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend by the number and then adding the products.
The sum of a number and 0 is that number. In multiplication, the product of a number and 0 is 0.
Example: 3+0=3 and 3x0=0
The set of positive and negative numbers, including zero.Integers do not include fractions (1/3), decimals (0.56), or mixed numbers (7 3/4).
A whole number great than 1 that has only two factors, itself and 1; a number that can be divided evenly only by 1 and itself.
A whole number greater than 1 that has more than two different factors. In other words, any number that is not a prime number.
Example: Composite number 8 has the factors of 1,2,4,8
any number that can be divided by 2 without leaving a remainder.
any number that cannot be divided evenly by 2.
the set of whole numbers, integers, decimals, and fractions.
Example: 45.6 can be written as 456/10
numbers that are not rational
the set of all rational and irrational numbers
Example: 1,2,3,4,5 etc.
numbers that are multiplied together to obtain a product
2 and 3 are factors
a number that divides exactly into two or more other numbers
Factors of 12 are 1,2,3,4,6, and 12
Factors of 15 are 1,3,5,15
-Common factors of 12 & 15 are 1 & 3
also a prime number
-The prime factors of 12 are 1,2,and 3
-The prime factors of 15 are 1,3,and 5
a way to compare equal parts with a whole
Example: 5/8 shows that there are 5 equal parts out of 8 equal parts
top number of a fraction
bottom number of a fraction
a number that uses a decimal point to show tenths, hundredths, thousandths, and so on
PEMDAS order of operations
Please (Parenthesis) Excuse (Exponents) My (Multiplication) Dear (Division) Aunt (Addition) Sally (Subtraction)
numbers we use for counting
used to show position
Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.
least common denominator
the lowest multiple of one or more denominators of a fraction
greatest common factor
the largest number that is a factor of two or more numbers
GCF- 15: 1,3,5,15
35: 1,5,7, and 35
least common multiple
the smallest number that is a multiple of two or more numbers
LCM- 3:(1)3, (2)6, (3)9, (4)12, (5)15
5: (1)5, (2)10, (3)15, (4)20
two fractions that have the same value but are expressed differently
Example: 1/5=20/100=2/10=4/20 (2x2=4) (10x2=20)
simplifying a fraction
the numerator and denominator of a fraction are reduced to the smallest possible integers
Example: 4/8 simplified (4/4=1) (8/4=2) = 1/2
problem solving strategies
1.) use manipulatives or act out the problem
2.) draw a picture
3.) look for a pattern
4.) guess and check
5.) use logical reasoning
6.) make an organized list
7.) make a table
8.) solve a simpler problem
9.) work backward
decimals are fractions...
that are based on a whole of 100 instead of a whole of 1
Example: one whole is equal to 100%
("percent" means "for every hundred")
A fraction expressed as a percent
use formula %=100* (numerator/denominator)
Example: 3/5 expressed as a percent would calculate as %=100*3/5=300/5=60
express a percents as a common fraction
divide the percent number by 100 and reduce to lowest terms
convert decimals to fractions
remember that percent means hundredths
find the percent of a number
percent must first be changed to a decimal number. 30% becomes 0.3 is multiplied by the number in question
Example: find 30% of(multiply) 33
Step 1: 0.3x33=9.9
so 9.9 is 30% of 33
a single value used to represent a collection of data
formula=sum of values/number of values
the middle value of a distribution that is arranged in size order
n=# of values
If there is an even # of values then add the who middle numbers & divide by 2
the value(s) that occur the most often in a distribution
a numbers distance from zero
Example: -3 & +3 have an absolute value of 3 (both are 3 spaces away from 0)
subtracting a positive
subtract the absolute value and give the sum the sign of the larger addend
the superscript number placed next to another number at the top right to indicate how many times the number is multiplied by itself
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