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Ocean Test III: Chapter 12
CHAPTER 12. THE PLANKTON, PRODUCTIVITY, FOOD WEBS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (74)
1. At high latitudes the controlling factor for limiting primary production is: A) temperature. B)
sunlight. C) nutrients. D) pressure. E) grazing.
2. The net primary production is equal to the primary production minus the: A) gross primary
production. B) biomass. C) part that is broken down during plant respiration. D) amount lost in
decomposition. E) standing crop.
C) part that is broken down during plant respiration.
3. Phytoplankton growth is nearly uniform: A) in the Tropics. B) at mid-latitudes. C) in polar
regions. D) at about 45 degrees north and south. E) nowhere.
A) in the Tropics.
4. The standing crop is a function of: A) growth. B) reproduction. C) death. D) grazing.E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Which of the following forms of nitrogen is most easily absorbed by marine plants? A) nitrogen
gas. B) nitrite. C) ammonia. D) nitrate. E) none of the above
6. Primary production in the oceans is generated by: A) nekton. B) zooplankton. C) phytoplankton. D) fish. E) crustaceans.
7. The total biomass under any area of sea surface at any instant in time is known as the ______.
A) standing crop. B) gross primary production. C) net primary production. D) livestock, E) none of
A) standing crop.
8. At low latitudes the controlling factor for primary production is: A) temperature. B) sunlight. C) nutrients. D) pressure. E) grazing.
9. Which of the following are decomposers in the marine environment? A) fungi. B) zooplankton. C) bacteria. D) All of the above are correct. E) Both A and C are correct.
E) Both A and C are correct.
10. Which of the following regions typically has the highest primary productivity per unit surface area of the ocean? A) zones of upwelling. B) coastal water. C) the centers of ocean gyres. D) tropical waters. E) temperate zones
A) zones of upwelling.
11. Organisms that eat both plant and animal material are called: A) herbivores. B) omnivores. C) carnivores. D) multivores. E) dualvores.
12. The first level of a trophic pyramid is always occupied by: A) primary producers. B)
herbivores. C) primary consumers. D) carnivores. E) omnivores.
B) primary producers
13. Overall efficiency of energy transfer up each layer of an open-ocean trophic pyramid is about:
A) 50%. B) 40%. C) 30%. D) 20%. E) 10%.
14. Energy loss at each level of a trophic pyramid goes to support the organism's: A) reproduction. B) breathing. C) feeding. D) moving. E) all of the above
E) all of the above
15. The relative abundance of phytoplankton to zooplankton is about: A) 100:1. B) 50:1. C) 10:1. D) 5:1. E) 1:1.
16. In deep-water communities along hydrothermal vent systems, primary production takes place
by: A) photosynthesis. B) chemosynthesis. C) metalisynthesis. D) decomposition. E) none of the
17. The number of trophic levels in a trophic pyramid is generally greatest in this region of the
ocean. A) estuaries, B) coastal areas, C) upwelling areas, D) open ocean, E) all areas are about the
D) open ocean
18. At the Equitorial upwelling: A) Mixes cold water from the depth of the ocean with the hot
surface water. B) Phytoplankton cannot swim and are almost completely absent. C) Brings
nutrient rich water to the surface. D) Allows the completion of the trade wind ce
A) Mixes cold water from the depth of the ocean with the hot
surface water C) Brings
nutrient rich water to the surface.
Which spectrums of visible light are most readily absorbed by chlorophyll a? A) blue and
green, B) green and red, C) blue and red, D) green and yellow
C) blue and red
20. Which of the following is NOT a control on phytoplankton primary productivity?
A) temperature. B) light. C) nutrient availability. D) zooplankton populations. E) all of the above
control primary productivity.
D) zooplankton populations
Which season has the highest levels of primary productivity in the Arctic? A) winter. B)
spring. C) summer. D) fall, E) productivity is similar year-round
Which area has the highest average rate of primary productivity? A) Coastal Ocean. B)
Estuaries. C) Upwelling Zones. D) Open Ocean, E) Mid-Ocean Gyres
C) Upwelling Zones.
Which of the following would be at the highest trophic level? A) sardines. B) phytoplankton. C) tuna. D) human.
Dinoflagellates are important examples of ______ that are often associated with ______.
A. phytoplankton; red tides, B. zooplankton; tidal bores, C. nekton; grunion runs, D. benthos
organisms; spring tides, E. krill; neap tides
A. phytoplankton; red tides
In mid-latitude waters during the winter, the supply of sunlight is ________ and the supply of
nutrients is ________. A. maximized; maximized, B. maximized; minimized, C. minimized;
maximized, D. minimized; minimized
D. minimized; minimized
In mid-latitude waters, productivity of marine algae _____ during the spring because _____.
A. decreases; a strong thermocline develops, B. increases; sunlight is getting better, C. decreases; the nights are getting longer, D. increases; there is an abundance of grazers at that time, E. remains constant; the conditions are the same as in the fall
B. increases; sunlight is getting better,
Kelp belong to which of the following types of organisms? A. macroscopic algae, B. diatoms, C. seed-bearing plants, D. eelgrass, E, surf grass
A. macroscopic algae,
In mid-latitude waters, there is a(n) ____ of nutrients during the spring because ________.
A. increase; the days are getting shorter, B. decrease; they are getting used up by phytoplankton, C. increase; that is when spring tides occur, D. decrease; the water is isothermal, E. constant supply; the water is isothermal
B. decrease; they are getting used up by phytoplankton,
Late one night as you are flipping channels on TV, you come across the Alfred Hitchcock
thriller, The Birds. You know that this movie showing unusual bird behavior was inspired by an
actual event involving birds that pecked people because the birds were affected by:
A. denitrifying bacteria, B. domoic acid, C. paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), D. western
intensification. E. symbiosis.
B. domoic acid,
Photosynthesis in tropical waters is limited by which of the following factors?
A. availability of nutrients, B. amount of solar radiation, C. presence of reef predators, D. color of the water, E. lack of a prominent thermocline (and associated pycnocline) in this region
A. availability of nutrients,
31. The ratio of energy passed on to the next higher trophic level divided by the energy received from the trophic level below it is called: A. the food web, B. the biomass pyramid, C. net primary production, D. gross ecological efficiency, E. biogeochemical cycling of matter.
D. gross ecological efficiency,
32. Which one of the following statements is TRUE concerning photosynthesis?
A. All animals photosynthesize, B. Water and carbon dioxide are converted to sugar and oxygen gas, C. Nitrogen and sulfuric acid are converted to water and sulfur dioxide, D. Photosynthesis is another term for respiration, E. Photosynthesis can occur in the absence of sunlight.
B. Water and carbon dioxide are converted to sugar and oxygen gas,
n primary production: A. carbon dioxide is released into the water, B. oxygen is utilized by
plants, C. oxygen utilized by animals is less than the oxygen consumed by autotrophs, D. proteins are made by animals, E. there is a net gain in organic carbon.
E. there is a net gain in organic carbon.
Bacteria that make their own carbohydrates by obtaining energy from chemical compounds and not directly from the sun are: A. chemoautotrophs, B. cyanobacteria, C. heterotrophs, D. phytoplankton, E. protists.
35. Net primary productivity is: A. net gain in organic carbon, B. photosynthesis minus cellular
respiration, C. total amount of photosynthesis, D. A and B are correct. E. A and C are correct.
D. A and B are correct.
The nutrients that tend to limit photosynthesis in marine environments include: A. carbon
dioxide, B. nitrogen, C. phosphorus, D. A and B are correct, E. B and C are correct.
E. B and C are correct
The depth at which the cellular respiration rate equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the: A. calcite compensation depth, B. epipelagic depth, C. euphotic zone, D. compensation depth, E. productive zone.
D. compensation depth
D. compensation depthAn important marine autotroph that has SiO2 incorporated in the cell walls are:
A. coccolithophorids, B. cyanobacteria, C. diatoms, D. dinoflagellates, E. radiolarians.
Primary productivity can be estimated from satellites by sensors that detect (a) carbohydrates in seawater (b) chlorophyll concentrations, (c) sea surface temperature, (d). latitude and longitude
(b) chlorophyll concentrations,
Large jellyfish are categorized as (a) Plankton, (b) Phytoplankton, (c) Meroplankton, (d)
Holoplankton, (e) Zooplankton
Following photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight ultimately rests in (a) Carbon dioxide
molecules, (b) Carbohydrates, (c) Oxygen molecules, (d) Water molecules, (e) Hydrogen molecules
When a phytoplankton remains below its compensation depth, it: (a) Will survive but grow
much more slowly, (b) Will eventually die, (c) Will die immediately, (d) Will reproduce, (e) The
question is meaningless
(b) Will eventually die
What is PRODUCED in primary productivity? (a) Carbon dioxide, (b) Cold, blue light, (c)
Carbohydrates, (d) Gametes, (e) Carbon atoms
"Red tide" is caused by (a) Water mass sinking, (b) Rising sea level, (c) Downwelling, (d)
Planktonic organisms, (e) Pollutants.
45. Which of the following is NOT a planktonic organism? (a) Copepod, (b) Diatom, (c)
Radiolarian, (d) Sea cucumber, (e) Coccolithophore
d) Sea cucumber,
Diatoms have an exoskeleton made of (a) Calcium carbonate, (b) Calcium phosphate, (c) Opal, (d) Strontium sulphate, (e) Cellulose
All of the following are lifestyles of marine animals except: (a) Grazers, (b) Producers, (c)
Scavengers, (d) Predators, (e) Deposit feeders
Which of the following is closest to the percentage of total incoming light energy that remains at a depth of 100 meters in clear ocean water? (a) 1%, (b) 10%, (c) 25%, (d) 50%, (e) 75%, (f) 99%
Probably the most abundant zooplankton (by number) in the ocean are (a) Diatoms, (b)
Dinoflagellates, (c) Shrimp, (d) Euphausiids, (e) Copepods
Probably the most abundant zooplankton (by biomass) in the ocean are (a) Diatoms, (b)
Dinoflagellates, (c) Shrimp, (d) Euphausiids, (e) Copepods
The by-products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
Bacteria that manufacture carbohydrates in the absence of solar energy from inorganic carbon are autotrophs.
Tropical marine waters have the highest rate of primary productivity in the world's ocean
Yes or No. Do zooplankton have a compensation depth?
Yes or No. Do phytoplankton have a compensation depth?
What's the difference between a FOOD WEB and a FOOD CHAIN?
Food Chain show one specific path of an organism consuming another one, where as food webs show all feeding relationships for organisms. Food Webs display more information.
Can phytoplankton ever get too much light? Provide an example.
Can phytoplankton ever get too little light? Provide an example.
Can phytoplankton ever get too little nutrients? Provide an example
Can phytoplankton ever get too many nutrients? Provide an example
...Plankton is organism that live in the water column and cannot swim against the current.
...Neuston live right on top of the surface of the water or directly below the surface.
Explain the difference between BIOMASS and PRODUCTIVITY.
...Productivity is the rate at which energy is stored by organisms, biomass is the total mass within a given environmental area
What is the average percent transfer of energy between marine trophic levels?
15. How can primary productivity be measured? Which method is considered most accurate?
By collecting bottles at different depths and adding either carbon-14 or measuring the oxyen produced. Using Carbon 14 is more accurate.
Although not actually a universal nutrient in the strict sense, a lack of ______ can limit the
productivity of diatoms because it is needed to construct frustules.
How are ocean currents important to Meroplankton?
Meroplankton are only plankton for a portion of their life, usually larva. The currents move the larva around, helping with overcrowding and giving a population a chance for more food.
In general, why is productivity higher near the continents than it is farther offshore?
Agricultural run-off at the coasts from humans that provides nitrogen and phospohrus, limiting nutrients, that allow for higher productivity.
Why is productivity high near the equator in the deep topical Pacific ocean?
nutrient upwelling @ equator.
20. Are herbivores most abundant above or below the thermocline?
Is Primary Productivity generally greater associated with upwelling or downwelling?
23. What does the term Odontocetes mean?
What do Primary Producers produce?
Photo primary producers produce sugar and oxygen. Chemo primary producers produce sugar and sulfuric acid.
25. Red tide is produced by ________.
Red algal blooms
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