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Review of Early Baroque (Quiz 1, Handout 1)
Terms in this set (64)
the period of time preceding 450 AD
the period of time between 450 and 1450
the period of time between 1450 and 1600
Which period ends for a completely musical reason? The musical reason was the creation of _________ (answer format: ______; ________)
the period of time between 1600 and 1750 (age of reason and revolution)
the period of time between 1750 and 1810
the period of time between 1810 and 1900
the period of time between 1900 and now; also known as contemporary
the term for solo melodic voice plus light instrumental accompaniment (usually basso continuo)
Count Giovanni Bardi
the leader of the Florentine Camerata
During what decade did the Florentine Camerata meet and have significant influence?
The Florentine Camerata was very focused on returning to the influence of this group of people
This group emphasized the importance of monody, critiqued 15th century treatment of polyphony, studied the doctrine of ethos to figure out how to move the affections, emphasized monody, and paved the way for opera
A new style of solo singing with light instrumental accompaniment, meant to emulate speech
Recitative was characterized by a ______ range and _________ rhythms
Was recitative syllabic or melismatic?
Recitative allows entire _______ to be set to music
the most common form of instrumental accompaniment in the Baroque period
Basso continuo required ______ players
The types of instruments required for basso continuo accompaniment include 1 _________ instrument and 1-2 ________ instruments
cello, bass viol, bassoon
Examples of bass instruments used in basso continuo
harpsichord, organ, theorbo (chitarrone), guitar, harp
Examples of chordal instruments used in basso continuo
A drama set entirely to music, with usual emphasis on the solo singers and accompanied by orchestra or basso continuo
The first operas were created in which city?
Jacopo Peri; Giulio Caccini
Virtuoso singers, members of the Florentine camera and 2 of the first opera composers
La Dafne (1598)
The first opera; music by Jacopo Peri (lost) and text by Ottaviano Rinuccini
The first opera in which we still have the music; music by Jacopo Peri and text by Ottaviano Rinuccini
The opera composed by Giulio Caccini, using the text from Jacopo Peri's version by Rinuccini
The first great opera. Composed by Claudio Monteverdi with a text by Alessandro Striggio
L'Orfeo was not composed in the city where opera was born. Where was L'Orfeo composed?
L'Orfeo is considered the first great opera because it is the first opera that wasn't almost entirely composed of _______ style
The most important transitional composer between the Renaissance and Baroque periods. He distinguished between the first and seconda practica, composed the first great opera, and later moved to Venice in 1613 to become the maestro di cappella at St. Mark's Basilica.
The distinction between the recitative and aria styles became more clear around this date.
Subjects of Roman opera were mainly _______ stories and figures
In Rome, women (could/could not) perform on stage
Male singers who were castrated at puberty to preserve their high-pitched vocal range. Performed in Roman opera as the female roles
Sant' Alessio (1632)
An example of a Roman opera is Stefano Landi's _______
This place introduced comic elements into serious stories, creating the first comic operas (and moving away from just mythology)
In this place, the paying public attended operas, rather than just aristocrats who received elite invitations.
Because of paying public demands, Venetian operas included more of this style of singing than in other places
Teatro San Cassiano (1637)
The first public opera house in Europe, created in Venice
The only city in which opera was the main musical event
ceremony (large ensemble), part of a dramatic work (large ensemble or basso continuo), military and hunting (solo or ensemble), dance (chamber or large ensemble), private entertainment (chamber or large ensemble)
List the common functions of instrumental music in the 17th century.
lute, harpsichord, viol (viola da gamba)
The most common solo instruments for unaccompanied music were (list 3)
violin family, cornet, organ, recorder
Other than the three most common solo instruments, other common instruments included ________
By the end of the 17th c, ________ and _______ were more common, especially in large ensembles (2 instruments)
Orchestras were based on ______-family instruments; later added oboes, bassoons, trumpet, and timpani
The most popular instrument in the Renaissance and the first part of the Baroque. Easily tuned to different pitch centers, six strings with frets, built in several sizes, used tablature; repertoire included dances, some improv toccatas, ricercars, imitative fantasias
Early Baroque keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers like the piano. There is less control over dynamics than with a piano. Repertoire includes dance suites, improv toccatas, ricercars, variations, and the accompanying role in basso continuo.
viola da gamba
A bowed instrument held between the legs, having 6 or 7 gut strings and movable gut frets. A member of the family of viols that pre-dated the modern violin family. Most solos were written in bass viol. Repertoire included dance music, vocal music, the bass line in basso continuo, and some improv
Violins first developed in the late ______ century
Violins became popular with professionals in the ____ and ______ centuries
viola da braccio
"armed violas"; ______ __ _______ family
Venice, Cremona, Brescia
These three cities were important centers of activity for making violins and performing them.
Biagio Marini, Dario Castello, Marco Uccellini, Giovanni Legrenzi
List 4 composers in the early and mid 17th century that composed violin music
sonare: Italian verb meaning ____ ______. Root for the name of the genre "sonata"
The earliest use of sonata was in the late ______ century; for ensemble pieces (ex: Giovanni Gabrieli)
What other genre is similar to the sonata?
Canzonas and sonatas are both ______, which eventually caused the development of movements
Castello, Marini and other Venetians composed sonatas influenced by _________. This freed up the solos more to be expressive.
The sections in sonatas change which __________ they are trying to portray.
false (the affect)
True or false: the word markings on a section of a sonata denotes the tempo the musician is supposed to play.
solo sonata (1630s)
A type of instrumentation for the sonata, in which there is one soloist and basso continuo accompaniment. (Include the decade in which it became popular in parentheses)
trio sonata (1660s)
A type of instrumentation for the sonata, in which there are two soloists and basso continuo accompaniment. (Include the decade in which it became popular in parentheses)
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