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Terms in this set (251)
Which of the following tend toward orthograde posture?
humans and apes
the assignment of organisms to categories according to their relationship and resemblance is known as?
Each gorilla troop has a silverback, which is usually the _________ in the group?
only breeding male
Which of the following comprise the great apes of the hominoid superfamily?
Orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees
What is the zoological superfamily that includes extinct and living apes?
Which of the following statements regarding apes and humans are true
Humans and apes are more closely related to each other than they are to monkeys.
Humans and apes share common ancestry
Humans and apes belong to the same taxonomic superfamily
True or false: Some apes have tails?
Some call the pygmy chimp, _____ live in the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo
There are dietary differences between chimps and gorillas. For example, _________ prefer fruits and are omnivorous, but ________ eat green bulk vegetation
Which of the following are true of chimps
Chimps are omnivorous,
Chimps live in tropical Africa and range over a larger area than gorillas
Which of the following is likely the last common ancestor of humans, chimps, gorillas, and orangutans?
Thanks to studies by scientists such as jane goodall, more is known about the full range of behavior and social organization of _______ than any other apes
Which of the following distinguished anthropoids from prosimians during the eocene epoch?
Anthropoid eyes were rotated forward,
Anthropoid brains and eyes grew bigger
Which of the following is the smallest and most agile of the apes
Which of the following statements about apes and brachiation are true?
Apes have longer arms than legs, which is adaptive for brachiation.
Young apes brachiate
Apes and humans likely had a brachiating ancestor
Hand-over-hand movement through the trees is known as
Which of the following are characteristics of primates?
Primates most important means of obtaining info is sight rather than smell,
Primates have five-digited feet and hands that are suited for grasping
What is the most exclusive classificatory unit of the zoological taxonomy?
Which of the following are traits of terrestrial, as opposed to arboreal, Old World monkeys?
Terrestrial monkeys are larger than arboreal monkeys
Sexual dimorphism tends to be more marked in terrestrial than in arboreal monkeys
Which of the following statements about baboons are true?
Male baboons typically leave their home troop for another near the time of puberty.
Female baboons form the stable core of the terrestrial monkey troop.
Baboons and many macaques are _______ monkeys.
Similar traits can arise if species experience similar selective forces and adapt to them in similar ways. These similarities are called
Which of the following best describes the process by which similar traits arise if species experience similar selective forces and adapt to them in similar ways?
Which of the following statements about gorillas are true?
Gorillas live in social groups
Most of the gorillas day is spend feeding
Gorillas spend little time in the trees
Which of the following is the smallest subspecies of gorilla and the animal you normally see in zoos?
Western lowland gorilla
Which of the following discoveries from the fayum deposits are true?
The fayum fossils revealed the existance of different groups of proto-monkeys
The proto monkeys of the fayum lived in trees and ate fruits and seeds.
The fayum fossils show distinctive dental formulas
Which of the following explains the arboreal theory?
claims that primates evolved from their ancestors by adapting to arboreal life. Primates are thought to have developed several of their traits and habits initially while living in trees.
Which of the following happened during the Oligocene epoch?
Proto-monkeys become the most numerous primates
Which of the following traits did pierolapithecus share with other apes such as chimps and gorillas
They were adapted for tree climbing as well as knuckle-walking on the ground.
They were most likely fruit eaters
The primate suborder _____ includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
Monkeys, apes, and humans, are
Which of the following statements regarding Gigantopithecus are true?
It is the largest primate that ever lived
It was confined to asia
Which of the following statements about catarrhines are true?
They are sharp-nosed as opposed to flat-nosed.
The include Old World monkeys, apes, and humans
Anthropologists are concerned with the _____ era, which is the era of recent like--birds and mammal
Which of the following did primates develop as adaptions to life high up in the trees?
Grasping hands and feet
importance of sight over smell
Which of the following are characteristics of orangutans?
Males typically climb, rather than swing through, trees.
They live in jungles and feed in trees.
Adult males weight more than twice as much as females
Which of the following statements about new world monkeys is true?
Many have prehensile tails
The largest primate that ever lived is
Reproductive success measured by the genes one shares with relatives is known as
Which of the following statements about modern-day orangutans are true?
They exist in indonesia
They are endangered
The study of evolutionary basis of social behavior is known as
Which of the following best distinguishes prosimians from anthropoids?
Many prosimians are nocturnal
Traits inherited from a common ancestor are called
Different geographic areas provide more abundant primate fossil evidence for different time periods. Which of the following is true?
The fossil record is limited, and much is subject to change
What was the cranial capacity of Au. afarensis?
430 cm 3, close to the size of an avarage chimp
The earliest human ancestral species that hunted game animals was Homo
What was the name of the earliest human ancestral species that hunted game animals for food
Which of the following hominins had an anatomical feature called a sagittal crest?
The stone tools that date to about 1.8 million years ago are called _______ pebble tools
What is the earliest date that homo erectus lived in africa?
A hominin that existed one million years ago was Homo
The famous fossil find known as "Lucy" was an almost complete skeleton of a bipedal walker. A more recently discovered fossil skeleton predates "Lucy" by almost one million years and is now the most famous early bipedal walker. What is the name of this earlier species?
The first hominin to leave Africa was Homo
Which of the following statements about kenyanthropus playtops are true?
It is dated to 3.5 million years ago.
It provides evidence that at least two hominin lingeages existed at the same time
The fossil find was made in northern Kenya
Which of the following tool types is associated with homo erectus
Acheulean hand ax
The ____ are famous cave paintings found in southwestern france made by prehistoric big game hunters and depict the animals they hunted, such as wooly mammoths, wild cattle and horses, deer, and reindeer
Cave art at Lascaux
Anthropologists have come to believe that foragers have an excellent knowledge of what?
plant and animal reproduction
The knowledge of the properties of metals, including their extraction and processing to manufacture metal tools, is known as _______
What was the initial purpose for writing
to keep records and accounts
The fossil of the flat faced "man" that was discovered in 1999 by Maeve Leakey's research team and represented a new branch of the early family tree was named
Which statement best describes the cultural abilities of Au. boisei and Homo erectus
Homo erectus had greater mental capacities that enabled toolmaking and hunting, but there is no evidence that Au. Boisei had those abilities
What was the name of the earliest species within the genus
Which two species of hominins existed during the period from 1/9 million years ago to 1.4 mya?
Homo erectus and Homo Habilis
Which species was named by louis and mary leakey, with the name meaning "handy man" because it was believed to be the first tool maker?
Which of the following traits appeared in human evolution, which set apart human ancestors from apes?
Upright bipedal walking
True or false: The brain size or cranial capacity of australopithecus afarensis was almost the same as that of a chimpanzee
What was the species name given to the famous :Taung child" discovery, and which anatomist named it?
Which species origionaly got its name because it was thought to be the first human ancestor that made tools?
What evidence of bipedalism was discovered at a famous site in laetoli, Tanzania?
A trail of ancient footprints preserved in volcanic ash
Between ardipithecus and austalopithecus, which genus was probably the ancestor
ardipithecus was probably the ancestor for australopithecus.
Which of the following statements best describes the time period in wich australopithecus africanus lived in south africa?
between 3-1 mya
Which statement about Lucy is true?
Lucy lived around 3 mya and about 40% of the skeleton was recovered
What was the name given by Louis and Mary Leakey to the type of stone tools associated with the species named Homo Habilis
The position of the foramen magnum in australopithecines is centered under the base of the skull, which indicates that australopithecus
walked upright and was bipedal
Which dating technique was used to establish that the age of the volcanic ash at the laetoli site was 3.6 mya
potassium-argon (K/A) dating
True or false: Probably one of the species of Australopithecus made and used stone tools long before the species homo habillis did.
Significant Australopithecus afarensis discoveries have been made in
Laetoli, tanzania, and Hadar, Ethiopia
What is the name of the species that was discovered in 2009 that dates to 4.4 million years ago?
Which statement best describes the famous fossil find known ad Lucy?
The Lucy discovery was a skeleton from female hominin that was 40% complete and has been dated to 3 mya
What is the name for the simple stone tools dating to about 2 million years ago that were first discovered by l.s.b. and mary leakey
What is the foramen Magnum and why is it important?
it is the hole through which the spinal cord attatches to the brain; its placement on the skull indicates whether or not a creature was bipedal
Which statement best describes the fossils belonging to the genus Ardi and how they relate to the genus australopithecus?
There are more than 100 fossil specimens enabling scientists to suggest that Ardipithecus wasn an ancestor to Australopithecuss
The single most important humanlike charachteristic that set apart hominins from ape ancestors was
How many species are there from the genus Australopithecus
The name for the place in the skull where the spinal cord enters the brain is called the ______, and its placement in the species named :Toumai: or sahelanthropus shows it was a bipedal walker.
The fossil specimens of "Ardi" and "Lucy" both show anatomy built for bipedal walking, but one of these hominids was considered more primative. Which of the following statement best describes their differences in anatomy
The pelvis of ardi was more primative than Lucys
Which statement best describes the sexual dimorphism of Australopithecus afarensis
The weight of adult males was likely twice that of the females
Which statement most accurately describes the teeth of australopithecus afarensis
Au. afarensis has pointed premolars that are similar to an ape's
How does the brain size of cranial capacity of the australopithecus compare with Homo sapiens and chimps
The australopithecus brain size was only slightly larger than that of chimps and was roughly one- third of the size of Homo sapiens'
A fossil discovery known as lucys baby was found in ethiopia. Which statement best describes the specimen?The toddler bones date to about 3.3 mya and compared to lucy includes more skull and skeletal material.
A significant amount of fossil evidence has been found that relates to the ancestral hominin species Australopithecus afarensis. Which statement best describes the amount of fossil specimens found?
One site studied yielded about two dozen specimens; another site yielded fossil specimens representing 35-65 individuals.
How old is the human ancestor known as sahelanthropus tchadensis?
Which of the following anatomical features of Au. afarensis were more like apes than humans?
The teeth and skull were more apelike while the pelvis and leg bones were human like
South African australopithicines can be divided into two major groups based on bone structure. To which group does australopithecus africanus belong
Which statement best describes the cranial capacity of Homo sapiens and the australopithecines?
The average cranial capacity of Homo Sapiens was 1,350 cm3 and the cranial capacity of the australopithecines ranges from 430 to 540 cm3
The teeth of the early hominins such as australopithecus afarensis have been carefully analyzed to see if they are more like those of apes or humans. Which statement best describes the differences ?
The canines of Au. afarensis are larger than those humans and extend beyond the other teeth
True or False: there are fewer than 10 fossillized bone specimens that represent only 2 individuals that wer discovered at laetoli and harad that established the species known as Australopithecus afarensis
What is the species name of the oldest fossil child, Which is called Lucys Baby?
Which anatomical features of Au. afarensis were human like?
The bones of the pelvis and the structure of the arms and legs were humanlike
The pelvis, hand, arms, legs, and feet of "Ardi" have been compared to those of "Lucy." Which of the following statements best describe Ardi?
Ardi's pelvis allowed her to walk bipedally, but her feet did not have an arch; Ardi's hands, long arms, and short legs show an apelike climber
What are the names of the two major groups of South African australopithecines?
Gracile and robust
What type of diet did the australopithecines have?
The early hominin species called Ardi had bipedal anatomy but still retained which characteristic of apelike anatomy?
ardipithecus still had a grasping foot allowed it to climb trees well.
The discovery of an early species of hominin called ardi revealed revealed that bipedalism first appeared in which type of habitat?
woodland or rainforest habitat
What does the narrower birth canal of Au. afarensis reveal about this early species?
Au. afarensis had a small brain.
In human evolution, the shape of the pelvis changed to accommodate two conflicting requirements. Which statement best reflects the nature of the chance in the pelvis?
Humanlike birth canals had to accommodate larger skulls, but the demands of bipedalism restricted the size that the pelvic opening could be
Which statement best describes the general shape of the pelvis and spine of Australopithecus
The australopithecus pelvis is shorter and bowl shaped while the spine is curved similar to that of the humans
How were Oldowan stone tools likely used
For breaking open bones for marrow, and for digging up roots and insects to eat
In the evolutionary sequence of hominins, which probably came first; Australopithecus afarensis or robust australopithecus?
A new species of hominin was discovered in 1999 that used stone tools to butcher animals earlier than any human ancestrial species had been thought to use them. What was the name given to this early tool user from 2.5 mya
Which statement best describes the anatomy and characteristic movement of the ancestral species known as Orrorin, which dates to about 6 million years ago
The thigh bone indicates bipedal walking, and the upper arm bone shows tree-climbing skills
What do the teeth and jaws of Australopithecus afarensis suggest about in diet
The large back teeth and thick lower jaw (mandible) accommodate the powerful chewing required to process coarse, gritty savanna vegetation.
Which statement best describes some important characteristics of ardi
Ardi had a brain that was about the size of a chimp's and lived in a woodland or forest environment
Study of nonhuman primates
unrelated societies are most apt to resemble each other when they have similar ...?
Humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians are primates.
foraging, agriculture, pastoralism
Yehudi Cohen's five adaptive strategies included ...?
Members of the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans
what type of society consists of people who "live off the land" by gathering resources from nature instead of cultivating crops or raising domestic animals?
Particular to humans there are two kinds of primates:
- Those whose ecological adaptations are similar to our own: terrestrial monkeys and apes (primates that live on the ground, not trees)
- Those that are most closely related to us: the great apes; specifically the chimps and gorillas
the Middle East
the earliest known sites where people cultivated crops and domesticated livestock are in ...?
The assignment of organisms to categories according to their relationship and resemblance.
farms and other encroachments of food-producing civilization, the modern world economic system, state governments
some foraging societies arise after people move to inhospitable locations to escape from ...?
Their genetic relatedness based on common ancestry
of the 2,000 Basarwa who wanted to return, only 189 were allowed to do so; the Basarwa were required to obtain permits for hunting; the Basarwa would be allowed to use only enough water for subsistence needs
why were critics displeased with the legal verdict that allowed the Basarwa of southern Africa to return to their ancestral lands?
The highest taxonomic level is
Kingdom. At this level animals are distinguished from plants.
social life, the economy
studies of societies often reveal correlations between what two factors?
The similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon.
These similarities were jointly inherited from a common ancestor
consisted of fewer than 100 people; consisted of people related by kinship or marriage; sometimes split up for part of the year
the foraging social unit called a band ...?
in most foraging societies, there were only minor differences in prestige, which was based on ...?
When species experience similar selective forces and adapt to them in similar ways
Process by which analogies are produced
regions where there are major obstacles to food production
in what sort of environment is a foraging society most likely to continue, even in modern times?
Monkeys, apes, and humans.
Constitute the suborder Anthropoidea
true or false: because correlations are universal, they indicate that all foraging societies share certain cultural features
Includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
foraging societies tend to be ...?
cutting laterally into a steep hillside to form level plots of ground that resemble steps
terracing is an agricultural technique that involves ...?
Anthropoid heritage that humans share with monkeys and apes:
Smell to sight
Nose to Hand
Part of the "grasping" concept - the thumb can touch other fingers
work and social life are intertwined
in nonindustrial societies ...?
Part of the "grasping" concept - (two-footed)
domesticated animals; irrigation; terracing
agriculture often involves the use of ...?
The two suborders of primates
Prosimians and anthropods
Prosmians are the older of the two suborders, Anthropods took over prosmian niches - Tarsiers and lorises survived by adapting to be nocturnal.
the loss of forests that are cut down to make room for fields; a loss of environmental diversity; the proliferation of pollution and disease organisms in irrigation ditches and paddies
intensive agriculture has caused ...?
Why don't prosimians directly compete with anthropoids?
Because prosimians are nocturnal and anthropoids are active during the day
move their planting area from one plot of ground to the next
horticulturalists who use slash-and-burn techniques typically ...?
The anthropoid suborder has two infraorders:
platyrrhines (New World monkeys)
platyrrhines: flat nosed
catarrhines (Old World monkeys, apes, and humans)
cararrhines: sharp nose
*get their name from placement of nostrils
often pay large amounts of rent to landlords and taxes to government; produce food without modern farming technology; live in societies organized by the state
peasants are small-scale agriculturists who ...?
Why are New World monkeys assigned to a different infraorder?
They were isolated from the catarrhines before the latter diverged into the Old World monkeys, apes and humans.
being moved from local people to a central collection point; being used by officials at the distribution center; finally being sent back out to the local people according to the dictates of the officials
redistribution involves goods or services ...?
The straight and upright stance of apes and humans.
Monkeys move differently, with their arms and legs parallel to one another, (same as a dog)
the Old World
before the Industrial Revolution, pastoralism occurred almost entirely in ...?
Unlike Old World monkeys, many New World monkeys have this which is a grasping tail. The prehensile tail has tactile skin, permitting it to work like a hand.
money is used to buy and sell items; the goal is to maximize profit; the law of supply and demand dictates the value of things
in market exchange ...?
Rough patches of skin on the buttocks
The specialized characteristic of Old World monkeys, used to sit on hard rocky ground and rough branches.
has no strong feelings about it because it does not belong to the person who made it
in industrial economies, the term "alienation" is used to describe a situation in which a worker has produced something but ....?
Night Monkey or Owl Monkey
Of all the anthropoids this is the only nocturnal animal. It is a New World monkey.
the entire village sometimes relocates to stay near the crops; some villages remain in one place for many years while the crops are shifted around it; the decision to move the village or leave it in place mostly depends on how large the buildings are
when horticulturalists shift their plantings from plot to plot ...?
The difference between terrestrial and arboreal primates
Arboreal primates are smaller and smaller animals can reach a greater variety of food. Arboreal monkeys are lithe and agile, they escape predators through alertness and speed.
Terrestrial primates are larger but this is an advantage in a sense that they can fight off predators.
Sexual dimorphism tends to be more marker on terrestrial species.
(It is hard to tell the difference of a male or female arboreal monkey)
Among terrestrial monkeys, the core group consists of females - among apes it is made up of males.
consider the broad picture by studying nonindustrial economies
economists tend to focus on capitalist societies in modern countries, while anthropologists ...?
A term that refers to great apes and humans
married outside their own band
bands in forager societies were exogamous, which meant people ....?
a woman spends money to pay for expenses associated with a ritual honoring her ancestors. this is an example of what kind of fund?
Traits shared by apes and humans distinct from monkeys and other animals:
larger bodies, longer life span, longer interval between births of infants, tendency toward upright posture, larger brain, the muzzle or face is shorter is less projected, and no hominoid has a tail
hand over hand movement through the trees
women often play a major role in food production; for large jobs, some societies assemble teams, while others use small groups or individuals over a longer time period; men handle large animals, but in some cultures women do the milking
which of the following are common divisions of labor in nonindustrial societies?
The terrestrial locomotion of chimps and gorillas. In it, long arms and callused knuckles support the trunk as the apes amble around, leaning forward
contains salt that eventually makes the field unusable
irrigation can damage the land because sometimes the water ....?
Smallest of the apes
Male & Female are around the same size.
Long arms and fingers with short thumbs: efficient for brachiation.
Slender and agile.
Use their long arms for balance.
The preeminent arboreal specialists among the apes.
Diet- mainly fruit, occasional insects or small animals.
land; labor; machinery
horticulture is cultivation that does not make intensive use of ...?
reciprocity; the market principle; redistribution
which of the following are principles that Karl Polanyi defined for orienting exchanges cross culturally?
Composed of a permanently bonded male and female and their preadolescent offspring
There are two existing species (orangutans=Asiatic apes that belong to the genus Pongo) & the two types are Bornean and Sumatra
High endangered, confined to 2 islands.
Sexual dimorphism is marked by the male being more than twice as much as the female.
Diet: fruit, bark, leaves, and insects
They are very solitary - their tightest social units consists of females and preadolescent young. Males forage alone.
horticulture is also called ...?
Just one species: gorilla gorilla - and there are three subspecies of gorillas. The western lowland, the eastern lowland, and mountain gorillas.
The mountain gorillas are the largest and rarest.
The western lowlands are what you see in zoos.
There are only 4 eastern lowland gorillas in captivity.
Sexual dimorphism in gorillas: the male is twice the size
They live in stable social groups, the troop is a common unit of primate social organization, (males/females/offspring)
Silver line down the back resembles full maturity of a male and is the only breeding male of the troop which is why gorilla troops are called "one male groups"
a father who buys clothing for her daughter is engaging in ...?
Belong to a genus, Pan, which has two species: Pan troglodytes (the common chimp) and Pan paniscus.
Like humans, they are closely related to the gorilla.
Common chimps live in tropical rain forests and woodlands.
Gorillas eat larger quantities of green bulk vegetation, but chimps (like orangutans and gibbons) prefer fruit.
Chimps are omnivores, capture small mammals, bird eggs, and insects.
Chimps are lighter and more arboreal than gorillas. And has much less sexual dimorphism.
Female chimps are more likely to migrate and mate outside their natal group than males. Chimps are very vocal.
common in most cultures
division of labor based on age and gender is ....?
Belong to the species Pan paniscus.
They never leave the protection of trees.
Same size as chimps. Female bonobos rule over male bonobos.
Bonobos are known as peace-loving, and male bonobos remain closely bonded to his mother for life.
They have frequent sex however dont exceed the reproductive rate of chimps.
capital; land; labor
means, or factors, of production include ...?
the use of digging sticks
which of the following is a characteristic of horticulture in nonindustrial societies?
Deforestation is the main factor. Other factors are human hunting and capture for use in labs or pets.
The apes are the most endangered.
The history of the vertebrate life has been divided into three main eras, which are:
The Palezoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic
Each era is divided into periods and the periods are divided into epochs.
agriculture; pastoralism; horticulture
in nonindustrial societies the adaptive strategies that are based on food production are ...?
Era of ancient life - fishes, amphibians, and primitive reptiles
they are influenced to a greater degree by regional forces such as war and international policies; they all depend to some extend on government assistance; they maintain contact with neighbors who produce food
how are today's foraging societies different from those of the past?
Era of middle life - reptiles including dinosaurs
some economies combine features of both types of cultivation
nonindustrial economies are typically arranged along a cultivation continuum because ...?
Era of recent life - birds and mammals.
Two periods: Tertiary and Quaternary
The Tertiary has five epochs: Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene.
The Quaternary has two epochs: Pleistocene and Holocene
*This is the era that anthropologists are concerned with
manure for fertilizer; transportation; pulling equipment such as plows
domestic animals are used in agriculture for ...?
States primates became primates by adapting to arboreal life.
linking villages together in a regional economic exchange system; sharing surplus wealth with more needy people; gaining prestige
among Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest, the potlatch served the purpose of ...?
What is the primate order subdivided into?
Suborders, superfamilies, families, tribes, genera, species, and subspecies.
the entire group of men, women, and children moves with the herd to different places throughout the year
pastoral nomadism is a system where ...?
All New World Monkeys are ______, however Old World monkeys include both _____ and _____.
All New World are arboreal, Old World are both terrestrial and arboreal.
the land produced far more yield in the long run; the yield is more dependable; most of the land can be used continuously instead of lying fallow for long periods of time
agricultural areas tend to be more densely populated than horticultural areas because ....?
resources would be shared communally
buying a gift for a friend, then expecting the friend to buy a gift in return, would not be customary in a foraging band because ...?
Great Apes include
Orangutans, gorillas, chimps, and bonobos.
Lesser Apes include
Gibbons and siamnges
A(n) ______ is an association or covariation between two or more variables
The first (prosimianlike) fossils clearly identified as primates lived during the_____
the basic social organization of a foraging society was typically ...?
During _____, anthropoids became the most numerous primates. This is also when New World monkeys diverged from the line leading to cararrhines.
larger, more permanent, dense communities increase contact among the residents; governments are installed to keep order and to coordinate the use of resources; permanent fields keep people tied to the land instead of being nomadic
in agricultural societies ...?
cultivation that requires somewhat more intensive labor than horticulture is called ....?
The earliest hominoid fossils are from the _____.
Contains the last common ancestor shared by the Old World monkeys and apes.
canals must be dug to divert spring water throughout the terraces; the retaining walls must be maintained each year; building the terraces requires great effort
terracing is a labor-intensive form of agriculture because ....?
the largest primate to ever live
negotiations between buyers and sellers must remain open for a short time; buyers and sellers do not need to meet personally; buyers and sellers attempt to obtain the largest possible gain
which of the following are characteristic of bargaining?
could be the last common ancestor of humans, chimps, gorillas, and orangutans.
crops are cultivated in a plot of ground, often for only a year or two; grass and debris are burned in place; trees and bushes are cut down to clear a plot of land
in slash-and-burn horticulture
What is used as a basis for assigning organisms to the same taxon (zoological category)?
the government of Botswana forced them to leave their ancestral territory because it was being converted into wildlife reserve
what event do critics claim turned the previously free Basarwa San Bushmen of Botswana in Africa into communities dependent on food aid and government handouts?
deserts; very cold regions; islands
most of the foraging societies in the world today are in locations such as ...?
Which of the following is shared by all anthropoids?
What is not an adaptive trend in anthropoids?
in a forager society a person might belong to multiple bands based on ...?
What is not a hominoid?
replacement; subsistence; social
which of the following are among the funds, or aspects of living, in which most people must invest their resources?
What is the term for a trait that organisms have inherited from a common ancestor?
workers are paid money for their labor; there is a social gap between the workers and the people who own and manage the enterprise
in the capitalist mode of production, which of the following are true?
what motivates individuals to participate in economic systems; the systems that different societies use for production, distribution, and consumption
economic anthropologists attempt to discern ....?
Ancient anthropoids began to have fewer offspring that required longer and more attentive care. What did this select for?
Which of the following primate traits are believed to have developed as adaptations to life in trees?
Stereoscopic vision and an opposable thumb
did not exist before Europeans introduced domesticated sheep
the pastoral economy of the Navajo in what is now the southwestern United States ...?
The classification of organisms based on their relationships and resemblances is known as
some hunt mostly big-game animals; some hunt and gather various animals and plants
which of the following are true of the world's foraging societies?
increases the fertility of the soil and therefore the value of the land; establishes a unique ecosystem that enriches the soil; makes it possible to cultivate a plot of land for many successive years
irrigation is used in agriculture because it ...?
chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans
which of the following comprise the great apes of the hominoid superfamily
which of the following tend toward orthograde posture
only breeding male
each gorilla troop has a silverback, which is usually the ____ in the troop
true or false: some apes have tails
what is the zoological superfamily that includes extinct and living apes
its rib cage; its lower spine; its wrist
which of the following features distinguishes pierolapithecus from the lesser apes
likely fruit eaters; adapted for tree climbing as well as knuckle-walking on the ground
which of the following are traits that pierolapithecus shared with other apes, such as chimps and gorillas
sometimes called the pygmy chimpanzee, ____ live in the forests of the democratic republic of congo.
there are dietary differences between chimps and gorillas. for example, ____ prefer fruits and are omnivorous, but ____ eat green bulk vegetation
thanks to studies by scientists such as Jane Goodall, more is known about the full range of behavior and social organization of what kind of apes
arboreal; skilled brachiators; live in primary groups
which of the following statements about gibbons are true
body size tends to be larger; tendency toward upright posture; longer interval between infant births
which of the following traits are shared by apes as distinct from monkeys and other primates
chimps are very vocal; chimps exhibit dominance relationships though attacks and displacement
which of the following statements about the behavior of chimps are true
what is the most exclusive classificatory unit of the zoological taxonomy
the forests of central and south america
where do new world monkeys live
which of the following have longer legs than arms
primates tend to be social animals, which live with others of their species; learned behavior is an important part of primate adaptation
which of the following statements about primates are true
discovered by in 2004, ____ was an ape species that lived during the middle miocene about 13 million years ago
Anthropologists are concerned with the _____ era, which is the era of recent life--birds and mammal
which of the following is the broadest of the classificatory units of zoological taxonomy
primates have five-digited feet and hands that are suited for grasping; primates' most important means of obtaining informaiton is sight rather than smell.
which of the following are characteristics of primates
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