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1 test physo
Terms in this set (68)
What is homeostasis?
-Each functional structure helps maintane homeostatic
-in the extracellular fluid
-called the internal environment.
-nervous & endocrine syetems maintain homeostasis
what is the difference between positive and negative feedback
-is their response to change:
-positive feedback amplifies change
-negative feedback reduces change
organization of life
Chemistry= atoms, molecules
molecular biology= cells
cell biology= tissue
physiology= organs, organ system, organisms, populations of one species
ecology= ecosystem of different species, biosphere
feedback loops (fish tank)
1. water temp is below setpoint. (stimulus)
2. thermometer sense temp decrease. (sensor)
3. wire input signal (input signal)
4. control box (intergrating center)
5. wire to heater (output signal)
6. heater (target)
7. water temp increase (response)
The force that holds two atoms together
A positively charged ion
A negatively charged ion
Formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
-chemical bond involves sharing
-a pair of electrons
-between atoms in a molecule
A negatively charged ion
has electrically charged areas.
-between a hydrogen atom
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together (strong)
forces of attraction between molecules
A large complex molecule made up of many smaller molecules linked together ina repeated pattern (lego piece)
building blocks of polymers
What are the 4 classes or groups of biomolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
what is acid
any compound that forms H+ ions in solution
what is bases in chemistry
is a substance that can accept a hydrogen ion (H+) from another substance.
what is the difference between acid and bases
Bases are substances that contain or form hydroxide (OH) ions when in water.
Acids are substance that give off hydrogen ions to form hydronium (H30) ions when dissolved in water.
what is a ph scale
measures how acidic or basic a substance is
how does ph scale work
is logarithmic and as a result
Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic= water repelling
Hydrophilic= water loving
what are the 6 functional groups
What is osmosis?
Osmosis is passive transport, meaning it does not require energy to be applied. diffusion of water
What is tonicity?
the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
is the process by which a cell detects and responds to signals in its environment.
serve as "eyes" and "ears" of cell
Usually span membrane, connect outside to inside
Binding to specific ligand induces response
Organ systems of the body
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
Electrons play four important roles in physiology
1. Chemical Bonds
3. High-energy Electrons
4. Free Radicals
Interact ions between water and other charged
4 Major Groups of Biomolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides
3 types of lipids that are important to cells
Most versatile of biomolecules in structure and function.
Sensing and responding to changes in surrounding
•Control exchange of materials between cell and its surrounding
•Obtain nutrients and oxygen from surrounding
•Eliminate carbon dioxide and other wastes to surrounding
•Perform chemical reactions that provide energy for the
•Synthesize needed cellular
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
The cells of a tissue synthesize and
secrete extracellular material known
Cells assemble into larger units we
The Extracellular Matrix has two basic components:
Proteoglycans and Insoluble
Histologists describe tissues by their physical
•the shape and size of the cells
•the arrangement of the cells in the tissue
•the way cells are connected to one another
•the amount of extracellular material present
in the tissue
•Epithelial tissues protect the internal environment of the
body and regulate the exchange of materials between the
internal and external environments.
•These tissues cover exposed surfaces, such as the skin,
and line internal passageways such as the digestive and
•Connective tissue provides structure and
support and sometimes a physical barrier
that, along with specialized cells, helps
defend the body from foreign invaders.
•The distinguishing characteristic of
connective tissue is the presence of
extensive extracellular matrix.
•Muscle tissues are an excitable tissue that
have the ability to contract and produce
force and movement.
•It has minimal extracellular matrix called
the external lamina.
3 specific types of work in biological systems:
Stored potential energy in the chemical bonds
of reactants (substrates) can be:
1.transferred to the chemical bonds of the
2.released as heat (usually waste)
3.used to do work (equals free energy)
Rate of Chemical Reactions
-Concentration of reactant
Relocation of electrons from food to
-Released energy used to synthesize ATP
What type of reaction is cellular
Redox equation for cellular respiration
Cellular respiration has three stages
2)Citric acid cycle
3)Electron transport chain
inner mitochondrial membrane
which means that some molecules can cross them but others cannt
is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
2 types of transport proteins can help ions and large polar molecules diffuse through cell membranes:
1) Channel proteins
2) Carrier proteins
•Movement is restricted to small molecules such as water and ions.
but are open
most of the
•Gates closed most of the time, which allow regulation of ion movement.
•Chemically gated channels
is the ability of a solution to alter a cell's water volume.
involves moving a substance from
an area of lower concentration to an area
of higher concentration.
Moving a substance
against its concentration
gradient always requires
an expenditure of energy.
concentration gradient and requires
3 types of Vesicular Transport:
endocytosis, exocytosis, transcytosis
Control of cells by chemical messengers
signals (ligands) and receptors (binding proteins).
in the nucleus results in the production
of RNA from DNA.
at the ribosomes results in the production
•Long distance signaling
Long distance signaling
The four primary arenas of hormone action
Reproduction, Growth & Development, Maintenance of
internal, Energy production utilization & storage
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