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Math
Statistics
8.1 -8.4 math terms
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Terms in this set (25)
statistical question
A question that can be answered by collecting many pieces of information, or data, and summarizing the data. (has variability)
Statistical Variable
a quantity or quality that can be measured or counted, and for which data are expected to differ from one observation to another. Two main types are categorical and quantitative.
categorical variable
A categorical variable places an individual into one of several groups or categories.
quantitative variable
a characteristic that can be measured numerically
population
the set of all members of a group that you want to know something about
sample
a subset of the population that is being studied to answer a statistical question about the population.
parameter
a measure that describes a population
statistic
a measure that describes a sample of the population
sample survey
a sample survey asks to every member of a sample the same set of questions and records the answers
experiment
an experiment involves applying a treatment to some group or groups and measuring the effects of the treatments
observational study
In an observational study, you measure or observe members of a sample in such a way that they are not affected by the study
bias
A study has bias if it systematically produces results that misrepresent a population
simple random sampling
every member of the population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample
stratified sampling
A type of probability sampling in which the population is divided into groups with a common attribute and a random sample is chosen within each group
cluster sampling
A probability sampling technique in which clusters of participants within the population of interest are selected at random, followed by data collection from all individuals in each cluster.
systematic sampling
A procedure in which the selected sampling units are spaced regularly throughout the population; that is, every n'th unit is selected.
convience sampling
create a sample by using data from population members that are readily available
self-selected sample
members of a population can volunteer to be in the sample
experimental group
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
standard deviation
a measure of how much the values in a data set vary, or deviate, from the mean. It is a measure of the variability or spread of the data.
skewed distribution
one with a shape that is stretched out in either the positive or negative direction.
symmetrical distribution
has a shape that, when reflected across the mean, the display is roughly the same.
normal distribution (has a normal curve)
can be modeled by a particular bell-shaped curve that is symmetric about the mean.
z-score
counts how many standard deviations a data value is above or below the mean, because it divides the difference from the mean by the distance of a standard deviation
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