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Science Test SG Answers
This Quizlet is only based off of the Study Guide for Honors Biology. Release date: September 16, 2019. Cereal code: look in the bar above. Enjoy! (stm)
Terms in this set (52)
(1) What is the difference between inorganic and organic compounds?
Inorganic compounds- Do not contain carbon & are not from living things
Organic compounds- do contain carbon & are from living things
(1) Give an example of an inorganic compound.
H2O and NaCl
(1) Give an example of an organic compound.
(2) Why is carbon considered the "building block of life"?
Living things are composed of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
(3) What is unique about carbon that allows it to form so many different shapes and sizes of organic molecules?
Carbon can form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. They can form numerous shapes: long chains, branched chains, and rings.
(4) What are the four types of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer (individual "building blocks" or smaller sub-units).
Larger molecules built with monomers.
all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism.
the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones
the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones
(6) Monomer of carbohydrates (and examples)
monosaccharide (single sugar and glucose)
(6) Monomer of proteins (and examples)
amino acids (leucine)
(6) Monomer of lipids (and examples)
fatty acids and glycerol (triglyceride)
(6) Monomer of nucleic acids (and examples)
(6) polymer of carbohydrates (and examples)
Polysaccharide (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
(6) polymer of proteins (and examples)
(6) polymer of lipids (and examples)
Fats, oils, waxes
(6) polymer of nucleic acids (and examples)
DNA and RNA
(6) Carbohydrates-Importance to living things
Main source of energy for living things
(6) Proteins-Importance to living things
Structural and functional proteins
(6) Lipids-Importance to living things
stores chemical energy in plants and animals, makes up cell membrane
(6) Nucleic Acids-Importance to living things
(7) Indicate if 7a is an example of dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis (look at picture)
dehydration synthesis (anabolism)
(7) Indicate if 7b is an example of dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis (look at picture)
(7) How can you tell if a chemical equation represents dehydration synthesis?
Water was a product in the reaction. The original molecule lost water (dehydrated)
(7) How can you tell if a chemical equation represents hydrolysis?
Water is a reactant in the reaction (water is required)
(8) What are the three types of carbohydrate monosaccharides?
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
(9) Name three disaccharides and what two molecules they are composed of.
Sucrose (glucose + fructose), maltose (glucose + glucose), lactose (glucose + galactose)
(10) Name three important polysaccharides and describe their importance in living things.
Cellulose- makes up plant cell walls
Starch or amylose- plants store glucose in this form
Glycogen- glucose is stored in a branched form and stored in the liver and muscle cells for quick energy
(11) What are three kinds of lipids found in living things?
Fats, oils, and waxes
(12) What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fates?
Saturated- (in animal fats) contain fatty acids in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds that are solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats- (found in plants - in vegetable oil) have fatty acids with at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Liquid at room temperature.
(13) What are lipoproteins?
clusters of lipids and proteins that travel in blood plasma. They carry lipids to the cells in the body and make membranes and steroids
(14) Which types of lipoproteins are considered "good" and which are considered "bad"? Explain.
Low Density lipoproteins (LDL, bad)- lethal cholesterol, clogs arteries
High density lipoproteins (HDL)- healthy cholesterol, remove cholesterol from arteries and return it to the liver
(15) What are two important functions that proteins serve in living things?
Structural proteins- are building blocks for all living things (found in every cell)
Functional proteins- i.e. enzymes help to run every biochemical process in the body.
(16) How can living things produce so many different types of proteins if there are only 20 different types of amino acids?
Different number and different combinations of amino acids (like spelling words)
(17) Look at picture and label A,B, and C
A- Amino Group, B- Carboxyl Group, C- R side chain
(17) Amino Group
a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino group
(17) R side chain
The variable portion of an amino acid
(17) What is the variable portion of an amino acid?
R side chain
(18) What are two important types of nucleic acids found in living things and describe what they do.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)- molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
(19) Look at the picture of the nucleotide and label A, B, and C.
A- Phosphate group, B- sugar, C- Nitrogenous base (adenine)
a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
(20) Which of the three parts of a nucleotide (nitrogen base, sugar, or phosphate group) listed above differentiates nucleotides from eachother?
The Nitrogenous base- adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T)
Benedicts solution color change
(Sugar) Blue, green, pink
Iodine solution color change
(Starch) Light brown, dark brown, black
Iodine solution (- or +) on oats
Iodine solution (- or +) on amylase
Iodine solution (- or +) on oats and amylase
Benedicts solution (+ or -) on oats
Benedicts solution (+ or -) on amylase
Benedicts solution (+ or -) on amylase and oats
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