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HI 407 Midterm
Terms in this set (78)
Waxhaw region (North or SC)
farming lifestyle, surrounded by indians
Where was Andrew Jackson born?
familiar with slavery
strong connection to the west
headstrong, individualistic, violent
believed in honor, courage
Describe Jackson as a person.
goes to law school in Nashville TN and invested in land and slaves
What did Jackson do in 1784?
wrote Tennessee's constitution
leader of state's militia
judge on state's court
runs for congress
What did Jackson do in 1796?
married rachel donalson
combines this with wealth and politics
What did Jackson do in the early 1800s?
at a horse race, gambling and drinking
one called the other a liar
dickinson known as best shot in tn
jackson wore a bulky coat and waited until after dickinson's shot to shoot
Describe the Jackson-Dickinson duel
Britian v. US
Jackson wanted to prove himself as a military leader
Describe the War of 1812
Redsticks v. Americans settling in MS territory
250 Americans killed by redsticks
Why did the Creek War start?
Jackson took soldiers and attacked the red sticks: victory
Improves his reputation by forcing the creeks to sign treaty surrendering their land
What was Jackson's role in the Creek War?
Major force of British army coming to New orleans
Huge american victory
British lost 2300 and america lost 13
Last major battle of the war of 1812
Give a background to the Battle of New Orleans
Seals jackson's fate as a political man
Jackson heads to New Orleans to see the arrival of the British at the new orleans port
What was Jackson's role in the battle of new orleans?
1) makes Jackson a national hero
2) victory of common, everyday people
3) secures western part of the united states
4) helps american nationalism
Why do Americans latch onto the battle of new orleans?
yes, slave owner, head strong, taking over indians
Would you consider Jackson to be a symbol of an age?
settled on land before federal government could survey the land
$1.25 acre and purchase as little as 80 acres
What was the minimum price of federal land in 1820?
terrible roads, weather, crops, animals, other potential settlers
List the many obstacles when moving out West.
1) clear land: no machines, takes a while
2) build shelter: one room cabin
3) plant crops: corn, vegetables, hogs
List the three steps of settlng
top concern is feeding their families; only produce what you need to survive
define subsistence farming
consisted of states surrounding the great lakes (ohio, illinois, wisconsin)
no slavery in this territory
large amounts of people arrive
Ohio was heavily populated and developed a market economy through the growth of wheat
Describe the Old Northwest
consisted of states bordering the gulf (alabama, MS, Louisiana, Arkansas)
encouraged violence; part of culture
lots of slavery
Describe the Old Southwest
1) Cotton boom
2) two types of cotton: sea island and short staple
What two problems arrive in the Old Southwest?
1793 - Eli Whitney
Who invented the Cotton Gin?
slaves from northern states sent to southern states
approx. 1 million slaves moved through this
Describe the interstate slave trade
When was international slave trade made illegal?
Market economy: wheat, tobacco
Population booms in 1815
Describe Madison County, Alabama
Connects people all across the country
Some people still rely on subsistence farming but many begin growing crops for profit
Define the idea of a market economy and why it boomed
meat, milk, butter
Why was there a rise in the production of cattle?
Europe buys lots of wheat from US paying top dollar so many farmers stop growing corn and start growing wheat
Why did wheat production increase in 1815?
the market controls the price of goods sold, less control in hands of people
rely on gov. for roads, harbor and others for basic needs
What are some negatives to a market economy?
utilize machines and labor work forces
industrial revolution takes place in New England
What are the basics of Industrialization?
investors were losing money
invest cotton mills in new England instead
Why did shipping decrease?
build entire towns around a mill
What is Francis Cabot Lowell known for?
centered around a textile mill
water power from merrimac river
young, unmarried women as workforce (no responsibilities at home)
debated among politicians
roads are slowed compared water transportation
easy to go down a river, but difficult to go back up
used floatboats aka wooden rafts
makes travelling upriver possible
New orleans to louisville takes 8 days on a steam boat
Impact of the Steam Engine
made popular by Erie canal in NY
more cost effective and efficient
originated in Great Britain
boomed with the power of steam powered train
elected in 1816
republican party: geared towards rights of states and individuals
Describe James Monroe
evangelical preachers, movement of the everyday people
new preachers rejected old theological ideas, especially calvanism
"free will" upon you, not God
protestant denominations begin to grow
The second great awakening
Methodist and Baptist
What were the two mainstream churches?
1. Protestant Christianity is ingrained into Jacksonian america
2. Women took on a greater role in church related activities
3. Some Americans believe that Protestantism can perfect american society
What were the 3 big implications of the Second great awakening?
If you wanted to vote, you had to own a certain amount of land
The rise of popular politics - what was the voting requirement?
treaty with spain
1819 U.S. acquires Florida from Spain
Adams backs spain into a corner and forces them to sell Florida to the U.S.
Define the Adams-Onis treaty
U.S. claims land known as "oregon country"
Warns Europe that U.S. would not tolerate further colonization
Gives america confidence
bold foreign policy
Define Monroe doctorine
seminoles attack americans
Andrew Jackson was asked to handle the seminoles in FL
What caused the first seminole war?
many americans felt that jackson had over-stepped his orders by invading Florida
Henry Clay pushed idea of jackson being reprimanded
Jackson and Clay became life long enemies after this
What was the outcome of the Seminole war?
Europe was at peace, which meant that there was less of a need for American goods due to farmers having time to tend to their crops
List the first cause of the Panic of 1819
The cotton boom went bust and they produced more cotton than was needed, therefore the price dropped dramatically, hurting farmers, workers, and land speculators
List the second cause of the Panic of 1819
Second bank of the US contributed to problems in the economy - careless about giving out loans, bad policies, economy crashes
List the 3rd cause of the Panic of 1819
1) Americans distrustful of the market revolution
2) gov. didn't properly handle the downturn of the economy
3) huge distrust of banking industry
List the three results of the panic of 1819
bank in maryland embezzled lots of money, state law places a tax on a federal institution
Give background to McCulloch v. Maryland
John Marshall decided bank of U.S. was constitutional and that a state could not tax a federal institution
What was the outcome of McCulloch v. Maryland?
The Missouri territory was part of the ______________.
Should Missouri be a slave state or a free state?
What was the question at hand when Missouri applied for statehood?
James tallmadge: no more slaves can be brought into Missouri once it is a state, and an emancipation program would be put into place immediately
What was the Tallmadge amendment?
No, Senate turned it down
Did the Tallmadge amendment pass?
1) Tallmadge amendment dropped
2) Admit Maine as free state
3) Drew the Missouri compromise line and says no slavery north of the line
List 3 parts of the first missouri compromise (1820)
Free african americans cannot settle in Missouri
The people of Missouri wouldn't follow the clause that said no free african americans can live there
The 2nd Missouri Compromise
1) Sectional divisions within the Rep. party (smother issue of slavery)
2) Slavery in expansion of America
3) More white southerners look at slavery as something good
4) Free African americans become further marginalized in free states
5) Henry Clay's reputation enhanced and viewed as possible presidential candidate
List the 5 ramifications of the MO compromise
Federalists refused to ally the british even though republicans wanted to, allying with GB would be devastating to federalist party
Why did war break out in 1812?
Federalists wanted to succeed from the Union to discuss doing so
What was the reason for the Hartford convention in Conneticut?
we see the first fall of the american party system as well
What happened at the end of the war of 1812 when the Federalist party fell?
how the party had fragmented and how the republican party was on its last legs because of other popular factions
What did the election of 1824 show?
John Quincy Adams
Who were the four republican candidates that ran in the election of 1824?
decorated war hero who was already in the spotlight due to removing Fl from Spain's grip
senator from TN
gained most of support from south
people agreed w/ opinion on speaking out on banking system
Describe Andrew Jackson as a presidential candidate
Ultimate pedigree to be in office (experience)
helped write Monroe doctorine
came off as arrogant
known in the National republican party
Describe John Quincy Adams as a presidential candidate
speaker of the house
helped with both missouri compromises
seemed qualified for the test in office
leader of National republicans
Describe Henry clay as a presidential candidate
more "old republican" (very conservative)
more of a democratic republican
biggest liability was physical nature: had a stroke that left him blind and paralyzed
Describe William Crawford as a presidential candidate
competition between federalist party and republican party. These two debate how much power the gov. should have. Also debate on what ally should be
Key Term: First American party system
Believed in a strong, powerful government. Imply powers in constitution and the gov. can provide for any grey areas. State gov. not as superior as the National gov. Wanted good relations w/ Britain
Key term: Federalist party
Built by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Believed state power was just as superior as federal government. Also believed in smaller national government, most of the republicans favor a strict interpretation of constitution. When it comes to foreign policy most were in line with the French and their public policy
Key term: Republican Party
would hold on to the traditional beliefs of the party-did not want to change original customs. Tiny group in the republican party only a handful found in the 1820. Lead by older southerner men. Most conservative and felt like their party lost their way and ideals. Founded in the 1790s. Did not agree with Jefferson and Madison's policies as a republican president. Felt the republican party had embraced a federalist mindset that allowed the government to become too powerful and thought the constitution had become too loose again. Very outspoken. Leader was John Randolph known as being a good speaker-held republican leaders accountable for
abandoning old customs. They were worried about expanding the power of the national government which could jeopardize slavery rights
Key term: Old Republicans
Leader was Henry Clay. Embrace federal power and embraced federal government to improve economy and build the second bank of the united states. Fine with state power if it helped the economy. Biggest faction beside democratic Republicans
Key term: National Republicans
believed that the party should still hold original idea like the old
republicans beside the state power. They believed less federal government but not the same power as the state government. Andrew Jackson was the face of the party. Other big faction.
Key Term: Democratic Republicans
1830 competition between democrats and whigs
Key term: Second American party system
stated that the election of 1824 was a rigged election and was stolen from the American society
Key Term: Corrupt Bargain
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