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biomass is deposited and buried with sediment instead of decaying.
118) The formation of fossil fuels begins when:
1) The form of oxygen that combines three atoms of oxygen into each molecule is called ________.
a comprehensive statistical analysis of aggregate weather conditions in a specific place or region.
2) The BEST definition of the term climate is:
a hypothesis that has been extensively tested and is generally accepted by the scientific community.
3) In the process of scientific inquiry, a theory is best defined as:
4) An interacting group of parts that is fueled by energy and works to accomplish the movement of matter or energy is called:
8) Which one of the gases listed below is more important meteorologically (that is, is more important in weather processes) than the others?
drops about 6.5°C
9) On the AVERAGE, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________.
at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
20) At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead ________.
21) The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________.
22) Which one of the following latitudes best represents the location where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on April 21?
23) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space?
Days and nights are equal in length everywhere.
24) Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?
25) On this date the length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator.
37) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
38) The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ________.
the amount of water vapor in the air
39) A very important control of the DAILY range of temperature is ________.
the average temperatures of the warmest and coldest months
42) The annual range of temperature may be described as the difference between ________.
cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude
43) A place located along a windward coast will probably have ________.
there is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere
46) The annual temperature range at most latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere is much smaller than that in the Northern Hemisphere. The reason for this is that ________.
nitrogen and oxygen
121) Which two gases make up a combined total of 99% of clean, dry air in the homosphere?
122) Scientists believe that a growing amount of this gas in the atmosphere will probably bring about a warming of the lower atmosphere.
in plant growth that result in less CO2 being absorbed during the dormant season
123) What best explains the "bumps" seen in the seen in the CO2 concentrations on the graph above?
125) This variable atmospheric component can exist in all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) at the temperatures and pressures that normally exist on Earth.
131) Which of the following is the MOST important atmospheric component with regard to the Earth's climate?
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
132) The four thermal layers of the atmosphere in order beginning from the surface are:
140) Which of these was NOT involved with the formation and evolution of our present atmosphere?
the chemical composition of the air.
147) The basic elements of weather and climate include all of the following, except:
Answer: has already created a reduction in ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere.
151) The Montreal Protocol
fall as rain and thus cool the Earth's surface.
152) The first function of water vapor in the Earth's original atmosphere was to
provide satellite data about precipitation in the low latitudes, over both land and water.
154) The primary function of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is to:
169) Although carbon dioxide is present only in small amounts, it is still more significant meteorologically than the other more abundant gases composing dry air.
178) A scientific hypothesis may be regarded as a tentative explanation of observed facts or events.
179) Vertical motion in the lower atmosphere is strongly related to the environmental lapse rate.
183) The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the last century is due primarily to the burning of fossil fuels.
184) Depletion of the ozone layer leads to increased amounts of UV radiation striking the surface of the Earth.
correctly predict observed facts or events
190) If a scientific theory is to be accepted and considered useful, it must be able to: ________.
192) The primary usefulness of satellites in observing the weather is their ability to provide ________.
194) A lightweight instrument package that is carried aloft by a balloon and transmits data on temperature, pressure, and humidity is called a(n) ________.
195) That portion of the atmosphere where the makeup of the air is uniform in terms of the proportions of its component gases is termed the ________.
Absorption of solar ultraviolet by ozone.
196) What causes the region of warmer temperatures found in the stratosphere?
temperature-humidity-clouds-precipitation-air pressure-wind speed-wind direction
197) List four of the basic elements of weather and climate.
198) The Earth's physical environment is traditionally divided into three major parts, one solid, one liquid, and one gaseous. List these three parts.
40 percent of the Sun's energy is reflected.
200) Suppose the albedo of a planet is measured to be 40 percent. This means that
remains constant at 23.5 degrees.
202) During the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the inclination (tilt) of the Earth's axis
Days and nights are equal in length in all parts of the world.
204) Which of the following correctly describes the equinoxes?
205) Flagstaff, AZ is at 35 degrees N latitude. What is the angle of the Sun's noon rays here on March 21?
206) At 45 degrees S latitude, the angle of the noon Sun is lowest and the length of daylight is shortest on:
214) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by the Earth system is reflected to space?
228) At what time of year is the Earth's axis not tilted either toward or away from the Sun?
229) During the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere, the circle of illumination passes directly through the
temperatures either increase or decrease.
240) If an imbalance occurs between incoming and outgoing energy at the Earth's surface
the Earth's surface.
242) Most of the solar energy absorbed by planet Earth and its atmosphere is absorbed by
257) Early in January the Earth is closer to the Sun than at any other time of year. This position is termed:
258) The atmosphere is nearly ________ to terrestrial radiation that has a wavelength between 8 and 11 micrometers.
298) The intensity of the Sun's rays at a place is determined by the time of year and the ________ of the place.
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