52 terms

Intelligence & Testing

terms and concepts from Myers for AP 2e Unit XI (and accompanying class notes)
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Alfred Binet
psychologist commissioned by Parisian school system to design intelligence test for educational placement
mental age
the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance; used by Binet to characterize early IQ scores
William Stern
German psychologist who developed the formula for intelligence quotient (IQ); [mental age/chronological age] X 100 = IQ
Lewis Terman
revised and adapted Binet's test for use in the US; assisted with development of intelligence tests for the army during WWI
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
Francis Galton
advocated use of intelligence tests as a measure of mental "fitness"; proponent of the eugenics movement & cousin of Charles Darwin
Charles Spearman
researcher who promoted theory of general intelligence (g) after factor analysis of major intelligence
intelligence
the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that indentifies clusters of related test items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
general intelligence (g)
general ability that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an expectional specific skills, such as in computation or drawing
Howard Gardner
researcher known for his theory of multiple intelligences
multiple intelligences
the idea that there may be several specific "intelligences" that can exist in a individual independently of one another (e.g. visual-spatial, kinesthetic, verbal, etc.)
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions; "EQ"
Robert Sternberg
devised a theory of "successful intelligence" (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative); theory also known as "Triarchic Theory of Intelligence"
Successful Intelligence
Sternberg's notion that successfully functioning individuals must be 1.) analytical, 2.) creative, 3.) practical; a.k.a. triarchic theory of intelligence
creativity
human ability believed to be enhanced by expertise, imaginative thinking abilities, venturesome personality type, intrinsic motivation, and a conducive environment
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance or capacity to learn
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned (e.g. final exam in a literature course)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
an individual test developed especially for school-aged children; it yields verbal, performance, and full scale IQ scores
Standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested, representative, sample group.
Flynn effect
finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately 3 points per decade
test-retest reliability
the degree to which test scores are similar or stable over time versus the degree to which scores change or fluctuate upon repeated testings
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
alternate form reliability
A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared
split-half reliability
A test is divided into 2 halves and the scores on the halves are compared to see if the test is cosistant within itself. Odds - Evens is the best way to do this.
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
predictive validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
criterion
the behavior (such as future college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity (i.e. it's the "thing" or ability that the test is supposed to measure)
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
intellectual disability
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound (previously "mental retardation")
Down Syndrome
A condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score; square root of the variance
z-score
a measure of how many standard deviations you are away from the norm (average or mean); calculated for a particular test score by subtracting the mean from the score and dividing the result by the standard deviation.
variance
average of the squared difference scores for a data set; standard deviation squared
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
positively skewed distribution
asymmetric distribution in which the majority of the data is concentrated below (to the left of) the mean
negatively skewed distribution
asymmetric distribution in which the majority of the data is concentrated to the right of the mean
mean
arithmatic average
median
the middle score in a data set; best measure of central tendency in a skewed distribution
mode
the most frequently occurring score
measures of central tendency
mean, median, & mode
measures of variation
range, variance, & standard deviation
descriptive statistics
numbers that describe and summarize a set of research data
inferential statistics
procedures used to draw conclusions about statistical significance and probability that generalization is warranted
Carol Dweck
researched the impact of "fixed" mindset (versus "growth" mindset) on student achievement; suggested our views about intelligence matter
grit
showing passion and perseverance in pursuit of long-term goals; may be an important component of academic and professional success
cohort
A group of people from a given time period. (For example, longitudinal studies track a particular cohort over time.)