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Bacteria, Protists, Fungi

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everywhere
Bacteria are found almost ________.
microscope
For thousands of years, people did not know about bacteria until a man named Antonie van Leeuwenhoek used his simple ________ to look at scrapings from his teeth.
one-celled
All bacteria are ________-________ organisms.
prokaryotic
Bacteria cells are ________ because they do not have a nucleus.
individual
Bacteria can grow as ________ cells.
groups
Bacteria can grow together in ________.
chains
Bacteria can grow together in long ________.
producers
Bacteria that make their own food are called ________.
producer
Any organism that can make its own food is called a ________.
consumers
Bacteria that eat other organisms are called ________.
consumers
Organism's that cannot make their own food are called ________.
aerobic
Bacteria that use oxygen are ________.
anaerobic
Bacteria that do not use oxygen are ________.
cell membrane
A bacterium contains cytoplasm surrounded by a ________ ________ and a cell wall.
cell wall
A bacterium contains cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane and a ________ ________.
cytoplasm
The DNA of bacterium is found in the ________.
capsule
Some bacteria have a thick, gel-like ________ around the cell wall. This helps protect the bacterium.
flagella
Many bacteria that live in moist conditions have whiplike tails called ________ that help them move.
endospore
When environmental conditions are unfavorable bacteria produce thick walled capsules. Inside of the capsule that bacterium produces a dormant form called an ________.
three
There are ________ basic shapes to bacteria.
cocci
Sphere shaped bacteria are called ________.
bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria are called ________.
spirilla
Spiral shaped bacteria are called ________.
two
There are ________ main groups of bacteria.
archaebacteria
Bacteria that live in harsh environments are called ________.
eubacteria
Bacteria that live all around "YOU" are called ________.
eubacteria
The largest of the two groups of bacteria is ________.
consumers
Most eubacteria are ________ because they eat other organisms.
antibiotics
Some bacteria produce chemicals called ________ that limit the growth of other bacteria.
antibiotics
Many diseases in humans and animals can be treated with ________.
bacteria
The ________ in your intestine produce vitamin K, which is needed for your blood to clot.
pathogen
Any organism that causes disease is called a ________.
vaccine
A ________ is made from particles taken from damaged bacterial cell walls or from killed bacteria.
toxins
Many pathogens produce poisons called ________ as they grow in your body or as they grow in food that you might eat.
botulism
A very dangerous type of food poisoning that you can get from eating canned food with infected with certain types of bacteria is ________.
sterilization
Most endospores and other bacteria can be destroyed by long-term heat treatment known as ________.
foods
Many ________ that you enjoy are produced using bacteria.
bacteria
Cheeses, buttermilk, chocolate, vinegar, and sauerkraut are all produced with the aid of ________.
pasteurization
A process that is used to kill most harmful bacteria with a minimum effect on the flavor of the product is called ________.
bioreactors
Today, bacteria and their by-products are cultivated in ________, which are giant, sterile, stainless steel vats.
bacteria
Sewage-treatment plants and septic systems use ________ to process and break down wastes.
saprophyte
A ________ is any organism that uses dead material as a food and energy source.
nitrogen-fixing
A group of bacteria called ________-________ bacteria are the only organisms that can combine nitrogen with other chemicals so it can be used by plants.
protist
A ________ is a one or many-celled organism that lives in moist or wet environments.
eukaryotic
All protist cells are ________ because their cells contain a nucleus.
fungus-like
Slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews are examples of ________-________ protists.
saprophytes
A fungus-like protist can be a ________, which means they get their energy from dead organisms.
parasite
A fungus-like protist can be a ________, which means they get their energy from living organsims.
spores
All fungi reproduce by making ________.
asexual
When a fungi produces spores it is a type of ________ reproduction.
protozoans
One-celled, animal-like protists are known as ________.
contractile vacuoles
Many protozoans contain special structures called ________ ________ which pumps excess water out of the cell.
move
Protozoans often are separated into groups by how they ________ from place to place.
flagella
Many protozoans move using one or more whip-like ________.
cilia
Other protozoans are covered with ________, which are short , thread-like structures that extend from the cell membrane.
pseudopods
Another way some protozoans move is by using ________, which are temporary extensions of their cytoplasm.
consumers
All protozoans are ________ because they capture and digest other organisms.
algae
Plant-like protists are known as ________.
algae
Some species of ________ are one-celled and other are many-celled.
microscope
One-celled algae have structures that are visible only under the ________.
flagella
Many small algae have ________ and can move from place to place to get sunlight.
algae
This type of many-celled, plant-like protist can be red, brown, golden, or different shades of green.
chlorophyll
All algae can make their own food and produce oxygen because they contain the green pigment ________.
Algae
________ and their products are ingredients in toothpaste, pudding, and ice cream.
Algae
________ can be used to make fertilizers, and the paint that makes road lines sparkle at night.
parasites
Many protozoans are ________ that causes diseases in plants and animals.
malaria
A very dangerous disease caused by a protozoan is called ________.
mosquitoes
The protist that causes malaria is carried to humans by ________.
food
Algae are important as ________ for animals that live in lakes, rivers, oceans, and other bodies of water.
algae
Much of the oxygen dissolved in Earth's water is produced by ________.
algal bloom
Sometimes so much algal growth is present that the water turns the color of the algae. This is called an ________ ________.
decomposers
Many fungus-like protists are important ________.
many-celled
Most species of fungi are ________-________.
eukaryotic
Fungi cells are ________ because their cells contain a nucleus.
nucleus
Some fungi cells contain more than one ________.
cell wall
Like plant cells, fungi cells have an thick outer ________ ________.
roots
Fungi do not have leaves or ________.
chlorophyll
Fungi cells do not contain that green pigment ________ and they cannot make their own food.
producers
Fungi are not ________ because they cannot make their own food.
decomposers
Most fungi are ________ because they break down dead plants and animals.
parasites
Some fungi are ________ because they live in or on another living organism and cause it harm.
spores
Fungi reproduce by using small, waterproof structures called ________.
warm, humid
Fungi grow best in ________, ________ areas.
hyphae
The body of a fungus is made up of a mass of many-celled, thread-like tubes called ________.
food source
The hyphae grow throughout a fungus's ________ ________.
enzymes
To break down their food the hyphae of the fungus released chemicals called ________.
hyphae
Fungi use their ________ to perform sexual reproduction.
sex cells
When fungi reproduce sexually they do not produce ________ ________ like animals do.
fuse
When fungi reproduce sexually the hyphae of two different organisms of the same type of fungus grow close together and ________.
reproductive structure
During sexual reproduction when two hyphae fuse together are special ________ ________ grows where the two hyphae join, and spores are produced in this structure.
reproductive structure
Fungi are classified according to the type of ________ ________ they produce their spores in or on.
club fungi
These fungi produce their spores in club like structures called basidia.
club fungi
Mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs, and toadstools are examples of ________ ________.
sac fungi
These fungi produce their spores in tiny sac structures called asci.
sac fungi
Yeasts, molds, morels, and truffles are examples of ________ ________.
edible
Many morels, mushrooms, and truffles are ________ and grow in early spring.
zygospore fungi
These fungi produce their spores in stalk-like structures called sporangia.
zygospore fungi
Bread mold is an example of a type of ________ ________.
zygospore fungi
The fuzzy, black mold that you sometimes find growing on old bread or a piece of fruit is a type of ________ ________.
imperfect fungi
These are fungi that never have been observed undergoing sexual reproduction.
imperfect fungi
Athlete's foot is a type of ________ ________.
organic materials
Fungi are important for the environment because they break down ________ ________.
organic material
Food scraps, clothing, and dead plants and animals are made of ________ ________.
energy, soil
When fungi decompose and break down organic materials ________ is released and vital nutrients are returned to the ________.
recyclers
Fungi, along with bacteria, are nature's ________.
diseases
Fungi can cause ________ in plants and animals.
lichen
A ________ is formed when a fungus and either a green algae or a cyanobacterium live together.
soil
Lichens that grow in the surface cracks of a rock play an important role in the formation of ________.
acids
As lichens grow they release ________ as part of their metablolism.
soil
The acids produced by lichens break down the rock and as these bits of rock accumulate and lichens die and decay ________ is formed.
pollution levels
Lichens can be used to help monitor ________ ________ in an area because they are sensitive to pollutants present in rain and air.
environmental problems
The disappearance of lichens from an area can indicate ________ ________.
fruticose lichen
Lichens that grow upright and produce fruiting bodies are called ________ ________.
crustose lichen
Lichens that grow on rocks and have a crusty appearance are called ________ ________.
foliose lichen
Lichens that grow on trees and have a leafy appearance are called ________ ________.
mycorrhizae
A fungus called ________ can greatly increase the growth of plants because they grown on the roots of plants and allow the plant to absorb more water and nutrients.
mycorrhizae
Scientists have found ________ around 90 percent of the roots of plants they have studied.
yeasts
A fungus that is used to make bread rise is called ________.
carbon dioxide
When yeasts are used to make bread the yeasts will eat the sugars present in the bread and produce a gas called ________ ________. This is why bread has holes.
spoil
Fungi can ________ food.
athlete's foot
A fungus called ________ ________ grows on the feet of many humans.
antibiotics
Many fungi naturally produce ________ to prevent bacteria from growing near them.
Antibiotics
________ produced by some fungi can be used to fight bacterial infections in some humans.
penicillin
The very first antibiotic ever made was ________. This antibiotic came from a fungus that was discovered by a man named Alexander Fleming and is still used widely today to fight many type of bacterial infections.
body
Fungi can grow on or in your ________ and sometimes cause disease.
monera
Bacteria belong to kingdom ________.
bacterial colonies
What are the yellow and red-orange dots in the petri dish above?
protista
Protists belong to kingdom ________.
fungi
Fungi belong to kingdom ________.
twenty
A bacterial cell can reproduce every ________ minutes.
cocci
The bacteria circled in the picture above are called ________ bacteria.
coccus
The bacterium circled in the picture above is called a ________ bacterium.
bacilli
The bacteria in the picture above are called ________ bacteria.
bacillus
The bacterium circled in the picture above is called a ________ bacterium.
spirilla
The bacteria in the picture above are called ________ bacteria.
spirillum
The bacterium circled in the picture above is called a ________ bacterium.
sphere
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Streptococcus mutans"?
rod
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Bacillus anthracis"?
spiral
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Spirillum minus"?
rod
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Streptobacillus moniliformis"?
sphere
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Peptostreptococcus"?
spiral
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Rhodospirillum rubrum"?
nitrogen
The white nodules on the roots of the plant in the picture above were produced by bacteria that fixes ________ so that plant can use it. The bacteria is called "Rhizobium" and and the nodules are called "Rhizobium nodules".
cytoplasm
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "A" ?
capsule
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "B" ?
cell wall
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "C" ?
cell membrane
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "D" ?
pili
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "E" ?
ribosomes
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "F" ?
flagellum
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "G" ?
Nucleoid (DNA)
In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "H" ?
cocci
What is circled in picture "A" ?
coccus
What is circled in picture "B" ?
bacilli
What is in picture "C" ?
bacillus
What is the arrow pointing to in picture "D"?
bacillus
What is circled in picture "E" ?
bacilli
What is in picture "F" ?
spirillum
What is the arrow pointing to in picture "G" ?
spirilla
What is in picture "H" ?
cocci
What is in picture "I" ?
coccus
What is the arrow pointing to in picture "J" ?
cyanobacteria
In picture "K" you can see bacteria that are capable of photosynthesis. They are also know as blue green-algae or blue-green bacteria. What is their real name?
spirillum
What is in picture "L" ?
reproductive structure
In the picture of fungi structure above what is letter "A" pointing to?
spores
In the picture of fungi structure above, what does letter "B" produce?
hyphae
In the picture of fungi structure above what is letter "C" pointing to?
mycellium
In the picture of fungi structure above what is letter "D" pointing to?
sexual reproduction
In the picture above is a type of fungus reproduction. What type of reproduction is it?
mushrooms
In the picture above is a fungal growth that typically takes the form of a domed cap on a stalk, often with gills on the underside of the cap.
toadstools
In the picture above is the spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically in the form of a rounded cap on a stalk. These are usually inedible or poisonous.
shelf fungi
In the picture above is a fungus that grows on living trees or dead wood, forming one or more shelf-like projections that are spore-producing bodies. The hyphae spread through the wood absorbing nutrients and can cause the death of the tree.
puffballs
In the picture above is a fungus that produces a spherical or pear-shaped fruiting body that ruptures when ripe to release a cloud of spores.
yeasts
In the picture above is a microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding, and are capable of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
molds
In the picture above is a furry growth of minute fungal hyphae occuring typically in moist, warm conditions, especially on food or other organic matter.
morels
In the picture above is a widely distributed edible fungus that has a brown oval or pointed fruiting body with an irregular honeycombed surface bearing the spores.
truffles
In the picture above is a strong-smelling underground fungus that resembles an irregular, rough-skinned potato, growing chiefly near the roots of broad-leaf plants. They are a culinary delicacy.
cup fungus
In the picture above is a fungus in which the spore-producing layer forms the lining of a shallow cup.
sporangia
The picture above shows bread mold which is a type zygospore fungi. These fungi produce spores in the black stalk-like structures you can see in the picture. What are these structures called?
hyphae
What are the white thread like tubes in the picture above?
crustose
The picture above shows a ________ lichen that forms or resembles a crust.
foliose
The picture above shows a ________ lichen that has lobed, leaf-like shapes.
fruticose
The picture above shows a ________ lichen that look like miniature shrubs and grow an inch or so high.
penicillin
The picture above shows a fungus that is used to fight bacterial infections.
mycorrhizae
In the picture above is a fungus that grows in association with the roots of plants. This fungus helps plants to absorb more water and nutrients from the soil.
athlete's foot
In the picture above is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itching of affected areas. It is typically transmitted in moist areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses. (Tinea pedis)
ringworm
In the picture above is a very contagious, itching skin disease that occurs in small circular patches when it grows. It is caused by andy number of fungi and affects mainly the scalp or the feet.
toenail fungus
In the picture above is a fungus that grows under the nail plate. When it grows it causes toenails to have a thickend, yellow, or cloudy appearance. The nails can become rough and crumbly, or can separate from the nail bed. There is usually no pain or other bodily symptoms, unless the disease is severe. The fungus also has a strong unpleasent odor.
fairy ring
In the picture above you can see a circular area of grass that is darker in color than the surrounding grass due to the growth of certain fungi. These areas are popularly believed to have been caused by dancing fairies.