PSY1005 Quiz 14
Terms in this set (27)
What are three main focuses of social psychology?
Social psychology focuses on how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
How does the fundamental attribution error describe how we tend to explain others' behavior compared with our own?
We may commit the fundamental attribution error when explaining others' behavior (by understanding the influence of the situation and overestimating the effects of personality). When we explain our own behavior, however, we more often recognize the influence of the situation. AHA!
What is an attitude?
Attitudes are feelings, based on beliefs, that predispose us to respond in certain ways.
How do attitudes and actions affect each other?
Attitudes - that are stable, specific, and easily recalled can affect our actions when other influences are minimal.
Actions - also modify our attitudes. This can be seen in the foot-in-the-door phenomenon and role-playing.
What happens when our attitudes don't fit w/ our actions?
The cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we will reduce tension by changing our attitudes to match our actions.
What do experiments on conformity and obedience reveal about the power of social influence?
Asch and others have found that we are most likely to conform to a group standard when (a) we feel incompetent or insecure (b) our group has at least three people (c) everyone else agrees (d) we admire the group's status (e) we have not committed to another response (f) we know we are being observed , and (g) our culture encourages respect for social standards.
In Milgram's famous experiments, people usually obeyed the experimenter's orders even when they thought they were harming another person. Obedience was highest when (a) the experimenter was nearby and (b) was a legitimate authority figure supported by an important institution, (c) the victim wasn't nearby, and (d) there were no role models for defiance.
What do the social influence studies teach us about ourselves?
Strong social influences can exert pressures to conform to false-hoods of give in to cruelty. Even a small minority sometimes sways a group, especially when the minority expresses its views consistently.
How much power do we have as individuals?
A ton. Social control (the power of the situation) and personal control (the power of the individual) interact.
How does the presence of others influence our actions, via social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation?
Social facilitation: The presence of others arouses us, improving performance on easy tasks but hindering it on difficult ones.
Social loafing: In a group project, we may feel less responsible and free-ride on others' efforts.
Deindividuation: When the presence of others both arouses us and makes us feel less responsible, we may lose self-awareness and self-restraint.
A desire for harmony within a group can cause its members to overlook impt. alternatives.
What's group polarization?
In a group, discussions with like-minded others cause us to feel more strongly about our shared beliefs and attitudes. Internet communication magnifies this effect, for better and for worse.
What are the three parts of prejudice?
Prejudice is an unjustifiable, usually negative attitude toward a group consisting of (a) beliefs (often stereotypes), (b) negative feelings, and (c) predispositions to action (discrimination).
How has prejudice changed over time?
Open prejudice has decreased, but subtle prejudice and automatic prejudice--occurring w/o our awareness--continues.
What factors contribute to the social roots of prejudice?
We tend to favor our own group (ingroup bias) as we divide ourselves into us (the ingroup) and them (the outgroup).
Social inequalities and social divisions feed prejudice. Favored social groups often justify their higher status w/ the just world phenomenon.
How does scapegoating illustrate the emotional roots of prejudice?
We may use prejudice to protect our emotional well-being, such as when focusing anger on a scapegoat.
What cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice?
The cognitive roots of prejudice grow from our natural ways of processing info: forming categories, remembering vivid cases, and believing that the world is just and our culture's way of doing things is the right way.
What biological factors predispose us to be aggressive?
Biology influences our threshold for aggressive behaviors at three levels: genetic, neural (activity in key brain areas), and biochemical (such as alcohol or excess testosterone in the bloodstream).
Aggression is a complex behavior resulting from the interaction of biology and experience.
What psychological factors trigger aggression? How does viewing multimedia violence affect aggressive behavior?
Frustration (frustration-aggression principle), rejection, getting rewarded for aggression, and seeing an aggressive role model can all contribute to aggression.
Viewing sexual violence contributes to greater aggression toward women.
Exposure to violence on screen provides aggressive social scripts for kids to follow. Playing violent video games has a stronger effect on aggressive behavior than does viewing violence on TV or in movies.
How does proximity influence whom we befriend or fall in love with?
Geographical nearness increases liking; even repeated mere exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of those stimuli.
How does attractiveness influence whom we befriend or fall in love with?
It increases social opportunities and improves the way we are perceived.
How does similarity influence whom we befriend or fall in love with?
Similarity of attitudes and interests greatly increases liking, especially as relationships develop.
How does physical arousal affect passionate love?
Intimate love relationships start w/ passionate love - an intensely aroused state.
What predicts enduring companionate love?
Over time, the strong affection of companionate love may develop, especially if enhanced by an equitable relationship and by intimate self-disclosure.
What is altruism?
It's the unselfish regard for the well-being of others.
When are we most-and least-likely to intervene as bystanders?
We are least likely to help if other bystanders are present (the bystander effect).
We are most likely to help when we (a) notice an incident, (b) interpret it as an emergency, and (c) assume responsibility for helping. Other factors include our mood and our similarity to the victim, also affect our willingness to help.
What social processes fuel conflict?
Conflicts b/w individuals and cultures are often fed by distorted mirror-image perceptions--each party views itself as moral and the other as untrustworthy and evil-intentioned.
How can we transform feelings of prejudice and conflict into behaviors that promote peace?
Peace can result when individuals or groups cooperate to achieve superordinate (shared) goals.
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