AP Euro Review- Reformations and Religious Wars

1 / 42
95 Theses
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (42)
Edict of RestitutionThe Catholic "high point" of the Thirty Years War in which church property taken by Protestants was returnedElection/PredestinationConcept that God knew at birth whether a person was to be saved or damnedInstitutes of the Christian ReligionIn this work, John Calvin advocated salvation by faith, not worksIronsidesOliver Cromwell's Puritan army, who defeated the king's supportersJohn HusAn outspoken German critic of the Church who condemned the worldliness of Church figures in the 1300sJohn WycliffeAn english scholar and outspoken critic of the church who insisted on salvation by faith aloneNepotismOne of the abuses of the Church, which included giving lucrative church jobs to one's children or other relativesOliver CromwellThe military leader of the Puritans who combined forces into the "New Model Army". His army defeated the king's supporters and eventually captured King CharlesPalatinateOne of the western German states that eventually became Protestant. In 1608, the Protestant German states, led by the Palatinate, formed the Protestant Union.Papal Index of Forbidden BooksPublished by the Catholic Church to punish heresy, which included all Protestant writingsPeace of AugsburgA treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany.1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler. Treaty which ended the dispute between Lutherans and Catholics in the German states in 1555Peace of WestphaliaTreaty which ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648, recognized Dutch Indepence, extended terms of the Peace of Augsburg to Calvinists, weakend the authority of the Holy Roman Empire; turning point in European political, religious, social historyPeasant RevoltRevolt in the mid-1520s which stemmed from German peasants' grievances against Church abuses and social illsPluralismHaving more than one church office at a time, which usually involving having a poor parish priest serve in the less desirable officePolitiqueOne willing to compromise between religion and politics for the greater good, they believed that civil order must come firstPresbyterianismA form of Calvinism brought to Scotland by John KnoxPurgatoryAccording to the Catholic Church, a place between heaven and hell where souls awaited entrance into paradise and were purged of their sinsPuritansCalvinist stand of Protestants in England who wished to purify the Anglican Church, specifically by eliminating the Book of Common Prayer and opposing bishopsRe-Catholization of BohemiaThis occurred when Bohemia was reconquered and the land was taken from the nobility. Schools set up by the Jesuits and trials and executions effectively rid the area of ProtestantismRestorationWidespread changes during 1660, when Parliament invited Charles 1's son, Charles 2, to return as monarchRoundheads vs. CavaliersNicknames given to the Cromwell-led Puritans and the Charles I-led Anglicans. The Puritan roundheads defeated the Anglican Cavaliers in 1649SalvationTo be saved from the punishment of suffering and sinSociety of Jesus or JesuitsFounded by Ignatius Loyola, this order was founded as a result of the Catholic Counter-Reformation and spread Christianity. It acted as the Church's "militant arm"St. Bartholomew's Day MassacreA slaughter of sever thousand Protestants in Paris and the surrounding countryside the night after Catherine de Medici married Henry of Navarre. This marked a turning point in the French wars of religion as it radicalized the Calvinist Protestants.Transubstantiation and ConsubstantiationThe idea that in the Eucharist, the bread and wine mystically became the body and blood of Christ (transubstantiation, Catholic) or that the "presence" of Christ was in the Eucharist (consubstantiation, Protestant)Treasury of MeritA "saving bank" where excess good deeds of devout Christians were held, which became an integral part of the selling of indulgences (donations to the Church for a shorter period in Purgatory).Union of UtrechtA union of the 10 northern provinces of the Netherlands, formed after the Duke of Parma won back the 10 southern provincesUnitarianismA religious movement which denied that God existed in the Trinity, but rather in only one formWar of Three HenrysAfter King Henry's men assassinated Henry of Guise, a Catholic monk killed the king. After this event, Henry of Navarre, who had capitalized on the repugnant idea of Spanish intervention, took over as the first Bourbon monarch of France (Henry 4)William TyndaleAn English reformer who translated, printed, and distributed the New Testament. He was later seized by the Catholics and executed for heresyEnglish Civil WarThe Cromwell-led Puritans (roundheads and ironsides) versus Charles 1-led Anglicans (Cavaliers). The roundheads defeated the Cavaliers in 1649.Spanish Armada1588- the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spain's Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power. (Spain's goal was to regain Northern Netherlands)