74 terms

3D Graphics 1

study
STUDY
PLAY
GUI
• We have buttons, menus, visuals. The "visuals" of the tech you use, with buttons, and options, and (stuff like Maya) rather than straight up code.
• An interface where you click on menus or buttons to navigate/use the system rather than typing commands/programming
(so programming/commands--NOT A GUI)
Primitive Shapes
• Basic geometry shapes (cubes, spheres, cylinders, pyramids)
• Basic building blocks you can use to make other shapes
• (give examples if asked)
Proprietary Software
• Program specifically made by a company for their own use?
• Large studios write own software called PROPRIETARY software
• NOT turnkey software like maya (you just turn the key and it "works")
• SOFTWARE WRITTEN BY A STUDIO, not off the shelf
Hierarchies, Parenting, Grouping
• Hierarchy—a RELATIONSHIP between two or more objects (example: a skeleton. Wrist connected to elbow joint, to shoulder joint, to chest/clavicle)
• Grouping—still a form of a hierarchy
• Parenting—you have a "child" object and a "parent" object. Pick child then shift pick parent, then whatever the parent does, the child will do the same. (translate, rotate, scale—child will follow if you do it to parent). Relationship b/tw parent and child object. (if you do it other way around it won't follow)
• Grouping: also a relationship between objects but difference is that if you group, you get a "node" (like an invisible container above the grouped items)and whatever that group "node" does, the grouped items will do the same thing.
• Both are forms of hierarchies.
transformations
translating something, rotating something, scaling something in xyz axes.
file formats
.mb and .ma.
• You are primarly saving in .mb (maya binary)
• .ma (maya ascii) basically means it is text. It is possible to save stuff out like this and people do that. People who like to edit the code do this method.
Right handed system
• If you point your hand in a certain way (your right hand) it shows the "positive" direction for each axis.
• You point your middle finger towards you, your pointer up, and your thumb to the right. ((those are the directions). Positive Z is the middle finger
orthographic cameras
-shows only 2 axes at a time. You can't look at an object in 3D in this view (you can't tumble it). Examples of orthographic cameras: side, right, top, front
Perspective camera
can show your project/object from any angle, you can tumble
Box modeling
• Start with a simp.le primitive shape like a cube, then add "resolution to it" only as needed. Add edge loops only as needed. Then start extruding faces or edges and then you move the vertices. There are different techniques with modeling, this is very common
n-gon
• How you DON'T want to model. A polygon that has more than 4 edges. In maya you want to try your best to model in quads with 4 sides. (less than 4 is a "tri" and that's bad too)
NURBS (and what are they made up of?)
Non Uniform Rational B-splines. Made up of CV (control vertices) instead of vertices, isoparms instead of edges, and patches instead of faces.
Extrude
"pulling out clay." You pick a face, or an edge, and you "pull it out" like pulling clay.
Normals (display>polygons>face normals)
Imaginary lines that extend from an object that show you which is the outside of the model and which is the inside.
how to show normals?
display-> polygons --> face normals
Topology
• The pattern that the edges make around your model. Important b/c: when modeling, you want to make sure you have quads and place edge loops in right places. When we get into "organic modeling" (modeling a character) the edge loops/topography have to be correct
uniform vs. non uniform scaling
• Uniform scaling—hit "r" get the cubes, pick the center cube in the gizmo, it will scale what you have selected in all 3 axes simultaneously as opposed to non uniform, you pick one cube in one axis and scale that axis on its own (one at a time)
Edge loops vs split polygon tool
• (split polygon tool: like a pencil, allows you to draw edges or edge loops specifically where you want them to go, as opposed to insert edge loop)
you know what edge loops are dummy
Interactive creation
• A function we always turn off. When u go to create polygon, that is on by default and it makes you draw out the polygon on your own. As opposed to when it's off it just appears at the world origin
World Origin
Where the x,y,z axes meet. The center of the "world"
Polygons are made up of what?
Faces, edges, vertices (as opposed to NURBS, which have patches, isoparms, and CVS)
floating vertices
• You make a model, say you don't like where you placed an edge loop or edge. If you just hit delete (instead of ctrl delete) you get FLOATING VERTICES, vertices with no edge attatched to them. They will make you crazy.
naming convention
• If u work for a large studio, every department within will have "naming conventions." You will be told "how to name your files." Specific way to label your files. Makes pipeline easier between departments. Organization! Yay!
Using the layers editor—"templating", "referencing" layers
• In the lower right of maya...pick something in your shot and then there is the "layers" editor. Click until you see letter "t"—you are templating your object (you can see it in wireframe, but you cannot select it) click until letter "r"—you can see it in shaded view, but you can't pick it. It's a way to manage your shots, especially when you start to get a lot of objects in your scenes.
pivot point/moving the pivot point
• The pivot point is like the point about which you can do transformations to your object.
• Hold down D to move the pivot point. You would do this because you need to control where the object is transforming. If you have an arm you want it to rotate from different places
Renaming geometry
go into the attribute editor and change the name??
drawing EP curves
An "edit point" curve—the curve DOES go exactly through the points. This and CV are the two ways to draw curves.
drawing CV curves
Control vertex. TAKE THE MOUSE AND CLICK OUT POINTS. The curve will not lie exactly on the points you draw out. one of 2 ways to draw curves in Maya
Grid snapping
hold down x--allows you to snap the points you are drawing to the grid
vert snapping (also known as point snapping)
If you hold down v you can snap a point or a vertex to something specific
In this project we made the pole vector constraints in front of the knees—to do so we vert-snapped them to the joints (then moved them in x or something)
another term for vert snapping
point snapping
point snapping is?
vert snapping. If you hold down v you can snap a point or a vertex to something specific
In this project we made the pole vector constraints in front of the knees—to do so we vert-snapped them to the joints (then moved them in x or something)
loft
You make more than one curve (two or more curves) when you loft them together, the software will make a surface between those two curves.
planar surface
a flat surface contained within a curve
revolve
aka a surface of revolution
-we made a "profile curve" of a wine glass, then revolved it around an axis and it created a 3D shape
surface of revolution
aka a surface of revolution
-we made a "profile curve" of a wine glass, then revolved it around an axis and it created a 3D shape
create a 3D surface through revolution? in what menu?
pretty sure NURBS. draw a "profile curve" then revolve it! creates a 3D shape.
copying to shelves
the shelves are the tabs with all the tools in them. If you want to make a custom shelf and put a tool in it, press control shift to put them in your shelf.
BOOLEAN
-make a hole in the object—take an object, translate it inside another object, go to Boolean menu and subtract and you have a whole. Modeling technique used either to combine objects or subtract one for another.
Surfacing
applying "shaders" to your geometry/objects
Shaders
Help you define the SPECULARTIY or SHINY-nESS of your surface
We use shaders to edit or control the specularity of an object, the color of an object, how bumpy or smooth it is, etc.
COMMONLY USED SHADERS: lambert, blinn, fong. (fong has a specularity, lambert does not!)
difference between a file texture, 2D procedural, and 3D procedural?
FILE TEXTURES
-an image of something
(can be created in photoshop, download them, take a picture with a camera, bring that into photoshop, you can paint it, go to cg textures.com...)

PROCEDURAL TEXTURES: 2D and 3D
Procedural: computer generated using mathematical formulas!
2D: mathematically generated, but goes around exterior
With 3D textural, if you were to cut an object open, the texture would appear on the inside as well as the outside. (you get a special 3d texture placement node CUBE ).
So main diff between FILE TEXTURE and 2D procedural is one is mathematically generated
file texture
-an image of something
(can be created in photoshop, download them, take a picture with a camera, bring that into photoshop, you can paint it, go to cg textures.com...)
(would not appear on the inside if you cut object open. is just on exterior)
Texture Mapping
texture mapping is when you take a 2D object and wrap it around a 3D object. (wrapping a 2D file with colors and stuff and wrapping it around your 3D object)
Tileable textures
-you need to do this so the texture is SEAMLESS. You don't want your audience to notice the seam even though your texture repeats. You want to paint out the seams so they don't see where the rpeition is happing although it does repeat.
procedural textures (2D and 3D)
Procedural: computer generated using mathematical formulas!
2D: mathematically generated, but goes around exaterie
With 3D textural, if you were to cut an object open, the texture would appear on the inside as well as the outside. (you get a special 3d texture placement node CUBE ).
So main diff between FILE TEXTURE and 2D procedural is one is mathematically generated
Bump Maps
an optical illusion
-isnt actually making your object bumpy, but gives illusion that it is
-black/white grayscale image that you apply to bump channel in the shader, gives the appearance that the object is bumpy
-NOT good for close ups (because you see that in actuality the object is not deformed and bumpy, it's still smooth).
NODES
maya is NODE BASED SOFTWARE
-a node is basically a container, depending on where you arein the software that container will have different things in it. Relates to SHADING NETWORKS.
A model is a node, a blinn is a node, depends what is in the container and where in the software you are.
shading networks
when you open hypershade (part of software where you edit textures), make a new Blinn node, plug in texturte to the Blinn node, then when you plug in the texture, you get the PLACE 2D TEXTURE NODE. That is a shading network. Nodes connected to each other in the hypershade.
-the reason maya has a steep learning curve is b/c it is node based software. You can just keep putting nodes in nodes.
UV mapping
you take a 3D model and you unwrap it, flatten it out, so that you can control the textures. Without UV mapping, your textures will not land properly on your models.
0 to 1
Your default UV range options in the UV texture editor. When we go to the UV texture editor, we get 4 quadrants, you see numbers (0to 1, 0 to negative). The upper right quadrant in the UV texture editor is known as "0 to 1" and is typically the space where people unwrap their models. The significance of different quadrants has to do with game engines and their limitations. If you aren't working on a game you typically don't have to worry about what quadrant you work in.
place 2D texture node
When you make a procedural or File texture you get this. Allows you to determine where in X or Y your texture is placed. part of the shading network?
"swimming" textures
pertains to procedural 3D textures
-when you make one, you get that "cube" that goes all the way around your object
-if you don't parent the 3D procedural texture to your object and then you animate the object, it can cause your texture to move or "swim." This is known as a swimming texture
movie texture
instead of texturing with a single file (mapping that onto an object) we mapped an image SEQUENCE or sequence of images onto an object. That's a movie texture.
outliner
the window that shows up on the left—a list of everything in your scene, cameras, objects, things you can't even see are listed there. (shows groups and hierarchies, relationships of one object to another)
Blinn vs Lambert
(what is the difference between lambert and another shader?) lambert has no specularity. Difference between blinn and fong (fong has a TIGHTER/narrowly focused specular highlight).
What is the difference between lambert and another shader?
Lambert has no specularity.
Difference between Blinn and fong?
Fong has a tighter/more narrowly focused specular highlight
CONE ANGLE
think about a real spotlight—you can open up the "Radius" of the light. The radius of the light you are letting through? The...radius of the light. FOR SPOTLIGHT. ONLY
PENUMBRA
the default the light is abrupt from illuminated from light to dark. (from the EDGE!) how quickly does it die off from the edge.
Controls the softness of the edge of the light—how smoothly/softly it transitions from light to shadow. Just the spotlight has this. WOO
DROPOFF
how quickly does the LIGHT drops off from the center. Is it a big yellow circle or just a spot of light that quickly fades into shadow.
Adjusting the quality of Depth map shadows
by default you are going to have a really hard edge around your shadwos, so you have to go in there and adjust the quality of the depth map shadows to adjusts the quality of the softness of the edge of the shadow (adjust the resolution and the filter size!)
what two factors are you adjusting when you adjust the quality of a depth map shadow?
resolution and filter size . makes for softer edges of shadows
key frame
the storytelling frames or poses of the animation. The MAIN storytelling drawings or frames are the key frames. You hit s to set a keyframe in maya!
interpolation
traditional animation term for it would be the "inbetweening" between frames. How it calculates movement between frames.
graph editor
in the graph editor, you edit interpolation and can edit where your key frames are. We looked at different kinds of interpolation: stepped (changed tangents to stepped....how south park is done.) others are: spline (smooth interpolation), clamped, linear, flat, plateau
batch rendering
as opposed to rendering a still image—you are rendering a whole batch/sequence of images that can be put together to produce the final moving image.
forward kinematics
-FK means you are going in a forward direction. For example, animating an arm swing with FK—the end of your chain is your hand. You start at the shoulder and ROTATE the arm forward. You don't translate!!
-You rotate the shoulder, set a key frame. Then move FORWARD to your next joint, rotate, and set a key frameon that. Then FORWARD and rotate it and set a key frame on that.
(you will have to explain an example)
FK
forward kinematics
-FK means you are going in a forward direction. For example, animating an arm swing with FK—the end of your chain is your hand. You start at the shoulder and ROTATE the arm forward. You don't translate!!
-You rotate the shoulder, set a key frame. Then move FORWARD to your next joint, rotate, and set a key frameon that. Then FORWARD and rotate it and set a key frame on that.
(you will have to explain an example)
IK
inverse kinematics
-think about what you did for the project! Take the "IK HANDLE" at the ankle, and position it. Then maya will calculate in an inverse direction (BACKWARDS UP THE CHAIN) and figure out how the leg is oriented. Maya will calculate the movement inversely based on how you transform the end of the chain. You are placing the HANDLE (IK HANDLE) and it makes it backwards.
inverse kinematics
-think about what you did for the project! Take the "IK HANDLE" at the ankle, and position it. Then maya will calculate in an inverse direction (BACKWARDS UP THE CHAIN) and figure out how the leg is oriented. Maya will calculate the movement inversely based on how you transform the end of the chain. You are placing the HANDLE (IK HANDLE) and it makes it backwards.
IK RP
rotate plane solver. -the kind chain we used in the leg. Designed to work with ball and socket joints. Allows the software to rotate the joints.
-the type of solver we use in the leg. Allows you to rotate the joint in any axis.
PVC
pole vector constraint
What will commonlyhappen—knees will want to bend the wrong way. So we make a PVC, place them in front of theknees, orient them so they don't go the wrong way.
-a constraint that allows the animator to maintain the proper orientation of the knee or ELBOW!
IK SC
single chain solver -like a hinge (used on the feet). Commonly used on feet (can be used elsewhere, but..) as opposed to a ball-and-socket joint, more like a hinge.
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