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Chapter 1-3 Review Questions
Terms in this set (36)
Provide three characteristics of life.
Living organisms have biological molecules that contain instructions for building other molecules; gather energy and materials for their surroundings to build new biological molecules, grow in size, maintain, and produce offspring.
List the major levels in the hierarchy of life and identify one emergent property of each level. (Most inclusive to least inclusive)
Biosphere; ecosystems; populations; organism;organ systems; organs; tissues; organelles; molecules; and atoms.
What do living organisms do with the energy they collect from the external environment?
To build new biological molecules, grow in size, maintain and repair their parts, and produce offspring.
What is a life cycle?
The exchange of matter between living and nonliving organisms. (such as, the photosynthesis cycle or the energy flow)
What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?
Artificial selection is when breeders who wished to promote a certain characteristic permitted of a species to mate. While natural selection, occurs in the nature.
How do random changes in the structure of DNA affect the characteristics of organism?
Variability among individuals arises through mutations in the structure, number, or arrangement of DNA molecules. Mutations are of no particular value to individuals. Rarely, a mutation offers a benefit to an individual under prevalent environmental conditions.
What is the usefulness of being camouflaged in natural environments?
An adaption derived from favorable mutations that help an organism to survive longer or reproduce more under specific environmental conditions. (ie: mice with cryptic coloration)
What is the major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organism?
In the prokaryotes, their DNA is not seperated from other cellular components. While the eukaryotes, have their DNA in the nucleus with in the cells and with other organelles.
In which Domain and Kingdom are humans classified?
Domain is Eukarya and Kingdom is Animalia.
Why do biologists often use model organisms in their research?
Model organisms have rapid development, short life cycles, and small adult size. (their appeal grows as a fuller portrait)
What is the scientific method? What are key components of the process?
The scientific method is an investigative approach to acquiring knowledge. The key components are observation, hypothesis, predict, experiment, and interpret.
In your own words, explain the most important requirement of a scientific hypothesis?
It needs to falsifiable by experimentation or further observations. In addition, it needs to be able to explain the relationship between variables.
What information did the copper lizard models provide in the study of temperature regulation described earlier?
The temperatures of the live lizards (Anolis cristaellus) is different in comparison to the copper models. Which confirms the hypothesis: A. cristaellus uses patches of Sun and shade to regulate its body temperature.
How would you respond to a nonscientist who told you that Darwin's ideas about evolution were "just a theory?"
Yes, it is a theory. Darwin studied his ideas about artificial and natural selection through experiments on domesticated animals. (ie: pigeon breeding)
Distinguish between an element and an atom, and between a molecule and a compound?
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical or physical techniques. While an atom is the smallest units that retain the chemical and physical properties of an element. On the other hand, molecules are atoms combined chemically in fixed numbers. Compounds are molecules whose component atoms are different and retain their chemical and physical properties from their distinctive atoms.
Where are protons, electrons, and neutrons found in an atom?
The electrons are located in the outside of the nucleus, while the charged protons and uncharged neutrons are in the nucleus.
What determines the chemical reactvity of an atom?
The type of bonds and forces that hold molecules together. (Whether it gains, loses, or shared electrons)
How does an ionic bond form?
Forms when the electrical attraction between atoms that gain or lose valence electrons.
How does a covalent bond form?
Forms when electrons are shared between atoms.
What is electronegativity and how does it relate to nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds?
Electronegativity is the measure of an atom's attraction for the electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom. While polar covalent bonds depends on the electronegativity differences between bonded atoms.
What is a chemical reaction?
The formation or breakages of bonds between atoms or molecules.
How do hydrogen bonds between water molecules contribute to the properties of water?
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules produce a water lattice that affect the properties of density, heat absorption, cohesion, and surface tension.
Review the properties of water.
Cohesion; low density as a solid; high heat capacity; great solvent.
How do a solute, a solvent, and a solution differ?
Solute is the substance being dissolved another substance, and the other is substance that does the dissolving is the solvent. Solution is both.
Distinguish between acids and bases. What are their properties?
Acids are proton donors and when dissolved in water they increase the level of H+. While Bases are proton donors that reduce the H+ within the solution. In addition, most bases when dissolved in water increase in the level of OH-.
Why are buffers important for living organisms?
Living organisms control the level of their pH of their cells with buffers, substances that compensates for the pH changes by absorbing or releasing H+. (Like how the blood pH is buffered by carbonic acid)
What is the difference between hydrocarbons and other organic molecules?
Hydrocarbons are molecules consisting of carbon linked only to hydrogen atoms. While organic molecules are complex molecules based on carbon.
What is the maximum number of bonds that a carbon atom can form?
Do carboxyl groups, amino groups, and phosphate groups act as acids or bases?
What is the difference between a dehydration synthesis reaction (condensation reaction) and hydrolysis?
Dehydration synthesis is the removal of water components (-H and -OH). While hydrolysis is the addition of water component.
What is the difference between a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, and a polysaccharide? Give examples of each.
Monosaccharides are carbohydrates that contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms (example: glucose). Disscharides are the polymerization from two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis (example: maltose). Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds or thousands of glucose units (example: chitin).
What are the three most common lipids in living organisms? How do their structures differ?
Three most common lipids in living organisms: neutral lipids (stored and used as an energy source), phospholipids (form cell membranes), and steroids (regulate cellular activities). Neutral lipids are formed by dehydration synthesis reactions involving glycerol, three carbon-alcohol with three OH attached to each carbon, and three fatty acids.
What gives amino acids their individual properties?
Their reactive functional groups (-NH2, -OH, -COOH, or -SH) is what allows them to interact in or outside the protein.
What is a peptide bond, and what type of reaction forms it?
Peptide bonds link amino acids into polypeptide chains (the subunits of proteins). Covalent bond reactions are what forms it.
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
What are the chemical differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA molecule is a double-stranded of two nucleotide chains wrapped around each other in a spiral. The sides of the ladder are the sugar-phosphate backbones of the chains. The rungs are nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. While RNA exists as a single strand nucleotide chain, they have their own bases. (like how uracil takes place of thymine)
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