91 terms

GWS 103 FINAL

UW-Madison, Alonso
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IPV
pattern of socially constructed behaviors based upon privilege, power, and control that one person uses over another within an intimate relationship (intimate partner violence)
4 types of IPV/DV abuse:
1. sexual
2. physical
3. emotional
4. stalking
cycle of violence
1. tension building
2. acute battering
3. honeymoon stage
Indirect impact of DV
increased injurious health behaviors, reduced preventative health behaviors, comorbid conditions
4 characteristics of an abuser
1. belief in privilege and entitlement
2. rigid sex roles
3. need for power/control
4. jealousy
3 recommendations on abortion
expand access to contraceptives and family planning, expand access to legal abortion, improve coverage for quality post abortion
Name three "vectors" of violence
spouses, neighbors, parents
Unsafe abortion
termination of unintended pregnancy by persons lacking necessary skills or in an environment lacking the minimal medical standards, or both
premenopause
years leading up to last period
menopause
no menstruation for one year, average age is 45-53 (normal 30-60)
• Cessation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries
estradiol, progesterone
menopause is the natural cessation of _____ and ______ production by the ovaries
premenopausal effects
considerably shorter or longer menstruation, erratic ovulation, shorter follicular phase
menopausal effects
lack of energy, hot flashes and palpitations, mood swings, memory problems, vaginal dryness, bone loss
estrome
dominates in menopause and post-menopause (weaker for estrogen), conversion of androgen into enstrone
estradiol
dominates in reproductive years (stronger estrogen), ovaries are the main source
estriol
strong hormone during pregnancy, placenta
treatments for the menopause "disorder"
HT, antidepressants, SERMS, bio-identical RT, lifestyle changes
self induced abortions
break amniotic sac, pump toxic mixtures into blood, self-administer illegal drugs
SERMS
selective estrogen receptor modulators-synthetically produced or derived from a botanical source
GBV
gender based violence
types of abortion
surgical abortions
medication abortions
abortion
the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy
surgical abortion
care provider evacuates contents of uterus (aka D&C)
1. Cervix dilated slightly (use a rod to force open)
2. Cannula (or curette) inserted into uterus through endocervical canal
3. Suction
• Performed from 6 weeks gestation on
• Fewer office visits than medication AB
• Procedure takes very little time (less than 5 mins for 1st trimester)
• Associated w/ less pain and bleeding (conducted w/ local anesthesia)
medication abortions
also known as medical abortion or RU 486
• Performed between 4 & 9 weeks of pregnancy
mifepristone
a pill that blocks progesterone
• Without P, the lining of the uterus breaks down, cervix softens, bleeding begins (RU 486)
• More often used in elective abortions
misoprostol
tablets that cause the uterus to contract and empty
• More often for miscarriage/fetal demise
42
Each year _____ million women with unintended pregnancy have an abortion
half, all
Nearly _____ of all abortions worldwide are unsafe, and nearly _____ unsafe abortions (98%) occur in developing countries
56, 6
In the developing world, _____% of all abortions are unsafe, compared with ____% in the developed world
47,000, developing
Each year _____ women die as a result of unsafe abortion, accounting for 13% of all maternal deaths worldwide, almost all of these deaths occur in _____ countries
2-7
Between _____ million women each year survive unsafe abortions but sustain long-term damage or disease
gender-based violence
GBV
• Violence directed against a person on the basis of gender
common/severe forms of GBV
• Intimate partner violence (IPV)/Domestic violence (DV)
• Sexual violence by non-intimate partners
• Rape and war rape (used as weapon of war)
• Trafficking and forced prostitution
• Physical and sexual violence against prostitutes
• Debt bondage of women and girls (price + interest)
• Sex-selective abortion (infanticide)
• Female infanticide
• Deliberate neglect of girls
• Dowry-related violence (bride burning)
• Honor killing
• Forced marriage (mail-order brides, slavery)
intimate partner violence
IPV
• physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse
• often starts with teasing and name-calling
• often regarded as "normal" part of relationship
domestic violence
DV
• Pattern of socially constructed behaviors based upon privilege, power, and control that one person uses over another within an intimate relationship (hetero or not heterosexual)
• Exists in all regions, cultures, cuts across all socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, religions, sexual orientations, age, and lifestyles
• Physical violence is the "enforcer" (criminal act), other behaviors erode the victim's sense of self, self-determination, and free will
types of DV
1. Physical: hitting, abuse
2. Emotional: yelling, name-calling, isolation, threats, "crazy-making"
3. Sexual: unwanted touching, forced sex, marital rape
4. Stalking: following after leaving house, harassing phone calls, finding victim in public places
power and control wheel
• Using coercion and threats
• Using intimidation
• Using emotional abuse
• Using isolation
• Minimizing, denying, and blaming
• Using children
• Using privilege
• Using economic abuse
teen dating violence
physical, sexual, emotional, stalking, in person/electronically, misunderstood for love in teens/overlooked in adults
• 9.7% of teens reported being hit or slapped by their significant other
5, 7
1 in _____ women and 1 in _____ men who experienced rape, physical violence, or IP had experienced some form of IPV between 11 and 17 years of age
3
Gender-based violence affects 1 in ____ women
health consequences of IPV
• Acute trauma (broken bones, chronic pain)
• Constant and chronic headaches
• Fatigue/depression
• Chronic stress
• STIs
• Unwanted pregnancies
• Alcohol/substance abuse
• Death
rape
most powerful form of sexual assault/power and control
• One of most underreported forms of gender-based violence
1. physical
2. psychological
20
More than _____% of all women in the US suffered rape or attempted rape in their life. (1/3 before age 18)
health effects of physical rape
• Lacerations, bruises, tearing
• STIs/HIV/AIDS
• PID
• Chronic health problems
• Losing virginity
• Pregnancy/no access to EC
• Infections/no access to antibiotics
• Vaginal fistula (incontinence)
health effects of psychological rape
• Fear (agoraphobia)
• Anxiety attacks
• Shame
• Depression
• PTSD
• Helplessness and desperation
• Flashbacks
• Alcohol/drug abuse
rape kit
Collection of physical evidence following allegation of sexual assault
• Fibers, hair, saliva, semen
• Women of color? Rape kit will fail them because of skin color
perimenopause
years leading up to last period
• 3-5 year slowing process
• follicles stop responding to DSH
• Shorter and more irregular follicular phase
• Fewer ovulations
• Biggest change is in ovaries, second is uterus
• Considerably shorter cycles
• Considerably longer period
estrone
hormonal change during perimenopause
• converted from body fat, comes from ovaries
potential effects of perimenopause/menopause
• Lack of energy
• Hot flashes and palpitations
• Depression, anxiety, mood swings
• Memory problems, lack of concentration
• Vaginal dryness, urgency of urination
• Bone loss
medicalization of menopause
Neither a disease nor a disorder, and does not require any kind of medical intervention!
• It needs careful attention, however, because some signs of important disease are masked with menopausal symptoms
• Medical intervention may also be needed when physical, mental, and emotional effects are severe
hormone therapy
HT
• Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), estrogen only for women who had a hysterectomy, HRT, estrogen + progesterone for women with uterus
hormone replacement therapy
HRT
• mixtures of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE)->Premarin, Prempro (synthetic progestin), patches, creams, IUDs, vaginal rings, gels, skin sprays, pills, injections
Double Blind Study on HRT/ERT
2000
• Had to be cancelled in 2002 because Prempro caused:
26% increase in breast cancer
41% increase in stroke
200% increase in blood clots in legs and lungs
• Found that HRT caused:
37% less colorectal cancer
34% fewer hip fractures
• Medical attitudes changed after being reconfirmed and after the WHI showed their findings, HRT use dropped dramatically
After study, menopause symptoms came back even stronger
Treatments for Menopause
• SSRIs = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
• Paxil, Prozac
• Sarafem
• Neurontin (Gabapentin)
• SERMS = Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
paxil, prozac
reduces anxiety and mood swings, also used for mood swings
• Used for menopausal women
• For young women with PMDD
sarafem
introduced by Eli Lilly in 2000 as the first FDA approved treatment for PMDD
Neurontin (Gabapentin)
antidepressant for menopausal women, hot flashes, bipolar, shingles, anti-seizure, fibromayalgia under brand name Lyrica
• Study showed Gabapentin is slightly less effective after 6 months to a year then placebo, Another study found no difference between Neurontin and placebo
agonist SERM
prevent osteoporosis and heart disease in bones and blood vessels
antagonist SERM
in breast and endometrium, help prevent breast cancer or endometrial cancer (Raloxifene, Tamoxifen)
cancer
uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body
• when new cells aren't needed but they are produced
• Old cells don't die when they should
• Extra cells form a tumor (mass of tissue)
81,000
_____ women per year are diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer and 28,000 die per year
4 types of cancer
1. carcinoma
2. sarcoma
3. lymphoma
4. leukemia
carcinoma
malignant cells invade tissue, can metastasize to distant regions of the body (skin, large intestine, lungs, stomach, prostate, cervix, breast)
sarcoma
invade soft tissues (fibrous, fatty, muscular, synovial, vascular), painless swelling, very invasive
lymphoma
cells attack lymphoid tissue, painless, enlarged lymph nodes, weakness, fever, weight loss, anemia
leukemia
cells attack blood forming tissues, abnormal proliferation of leukocytes, white blood cells divide uncontrollably, affects production of blood in general
3 ways cancer metastasize
1. Through tissue by growing in nearby areas
2. Lymph system traveling through lymph vessels to other parts
3. Blood traveling through the bloods vessels to other parts `
endometrial cancer
(uterine)
• One of the most common in the US
• Risk factors: obesity, estrogen excess, tamoxifen, heredity
• Symptoms: vaginal bleeding (postmenopausal)
• Diagnosis: biopsy
• Treatment: Chemo, radiation, hysterectomy, partial or total
cervical cancer
• Risk factors: HPV
• Symptoms: vaginal bleeding, discharge, pain during intercourse
• Diagnosis: biopsy after positive pap smear
• Treatment: depends on size, type, age, chemo, removing cervix
ovarian cancer
• Epithelial carcinoma = begins in cells on the surface of ovary
• Malignant germ cell = begins in egg cells
• Risk factors: over 55, HRT, family history, no pregnancies
• Symptoms: vaginal bleeding, abdominal abnormalities
• Diagnosis: biopsy
• Treatment: chemo or surgery
vaginal/vulvar cancer
• Rare types of cancer
• Inside introitus
breast cancer
• Occurs in both men and women
• Lung cancer is most common killer, this comes second
• Risk factors: age, heredity, dense breast tissue, certain benign conditions
• Causes: children after age 34, birth control, hormone therapy, obesity, no breast feeding, chemicals in environment
209
breast cancer affects 1 in ____ people between birth and age 39
24
breast cancer affects 1 in ____ people between the age of 40 to 59
16
breast cancer affects 1 in ____ people between the age of 60 to 69
African American
_____ _____ women have higher mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the U.S., but there are more incidents of breast cancer in Caucasian women
Stage 0
breast cancer stage
• atypical cells have not spread outside of the ducts or lobules (carcinoma in situ)
Stage I
breast cancer stage
• cancer no larger than 1" and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes or outside the breast
key to survival
EARLY DETECTION!
• The earlier cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis
91, 78
Survival rates
• Asian women ____ %
• White 90%
• Hispanic/Latina 86%
• Pacific Islander 86%
• American Indian/Alaska Native 84%
• African American ____ %
BRCA
• Everyone has BRCA genes:
o Help prevent cancer from developing
o Repair cell damage so breast cells can grow normally
• Tumor suppressor genes
o When BRCA is mutated, it cannot function normally and breast cancer risk increases
o BRCA 1 -breast, ovarian, prostate
o BRCA 2—breast, ovarian, pancreas, prostate, larynge, stomach, skin
prevention
• "Action taken to lower the chance of getting Breast Cancer":
• Avoid risk factors (anything that increases chance of developing breast cancer)
o Smoking, pesticides...
• Increase protective factors (anything that decreases chances)
o Exercise, diet...
USPSTF recommendations
after 2009
• No mammograms for women between 40-50 (except for women at risk)
• Start at age 50
• Less frequent mammograms between 50-74 (every two years
• Against teaching breast self-examination (not associated with a decrease in mortality rates)
The Picture of Health
Study examined the way health textbooks "sell" their ideologies to readers and also analyzed groups that were and were not represented in the photos. People try to attain the "picture of health" rather than actual health. "Healthy-image photos" (main photos) are largely white, middle-class individuals (23 men, 18 women) doing fairly expensive activities. Absence of colored people in healthy image photos but not in the rest of the book. Disabled people are largely nonexistent in photos. There are no fat people in the healthy-image photos. Almost all scenes are in nonurban settings.
The Pressures of Perfectionism
Breakdown of all the risks associated with getting breast implants: breakage, trouble breastfeeding, painful hardening among all implants from silicone or saline. Complying with prevalent norms of beauty risks measuring our own value in terms of attractiveness and sexuality rather than by deeper qualities.
Adolescent Battered Women
Intergenerational transmission of violence is a problem experienced by 30% of boys who grow up in a violent home. Other factors leading adolescents to become violent adults include messaging that makes it seem violence inevitable, video games, and repeated exposure that leads to desensitization.
Same-Sex Battering
In order for domestic abuse theory to include both hetero and homosexual relationships, it must take a "sociopolitical and psychological" approach. There is a large disparity in male-to-female violence (95%) but that should not take away attention from purely psychological factors that affect homosexual relationships
Less Hormone Therapy
The exodus" from hormone therapy to treat menopause has shown a plummet in breast cancer diagnoses. Hormone therapy effective for hot flashes, and its short-term use may be worth the risks for some women with severe symptoms
The Environmental Connection (breast cancer)
Environmental factors consisting of chemicals such as radiation, asbestos, smoking, etc are almost solely responsible for the cancer epidemic. Chemicals used in our food, for example dyes and hormones in meat, and the common use of carcinogens are other contributing factors.
Screening Mammograms
Baseline mammograms are NOT NECESSARY for women under 40, despite the strong belief by the ACS that they are, there is no actual study that shows a benefit. Since early cancer is found through screenings when women are young, treatment could be given to a sickness and more importantly a woman that doesn't need it.
Manufacturing Need
Pharmaceutical companies try their best to medicalize natural bodily functions like menopause with pressure from drug companies to make a profit
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