Enlightenment Unit 1 World History
Terms in this set (28)
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Life, Liberty, and Property
Divine Right rule
term to describe monarch's belief that their authority to rule came directly from God
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
French philosopher that proposed the idea of separation of powers
Made the idea of the social contract and that if the government is corrupt than the people have the power to overthrow it
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
restriction on access to ideas and information
Published work of many philosophes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
(1738-1794) wrote 'On Crimes and Punishments', wanted laws to conform to rational laws of nature
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
supply and demand
an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
Fredrick the Great
King of Prussia who used the military to strengthen the nation's power
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Articles of confederation, Constitution, Declaration of independence
List three major USA documents
They wrote as a fiction story
How did writers avoid censorship
Bach, Handel, Hayden, and Mozart
List 3 Classical musicians
They justified by saying that their power came from god and that god told them they should have power.
How did the Church and Kings/Queens justify their power