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Breaching experiments

experiments that violate the established social order to assess how people construct social reality


A society's set of unique patterns of behavior and beliefs


A method of studying society through observation of people's day to day interactions

Group processes

a perspective within sociological psych that examines how basic social processes operate in group contexts


The study of large-scale social processes


The study of the effects of society on social-psychological processes


A set of expectations about how to behave in a group

Social Institutions

Patterns of interactions in which behavior within a large group is guided by a common set of norms and roles

Social norms

The rules that regulate our behavior in relationships


deeply held ideals and beliefs


The ability to act and think independent of the contraints imposed by social conditions

collective behavior

the action or behavior of people in groups or crowds

Frame Analysis

the process by which individuals transform the meaning of a situation using basic cognitive structures provided by society

proximity principle

element of the social structure and personality perspective referring to how peopleare affected by social structure through their immediate social environments

social scripts

the appropriate thoughts, feelingsm and behaviors that should be diplayed in a particular social frame

psychology principle

element of the social structure and personality perspective referring to how individuals internalize proximal experiences

Thoman Theorem

Theorem stating that when people define situations as real, the consequences of those situations become real.

Birth cohort

A group of people born around the same time period

Contextual dissonance

A feeling that minority members of a group have because they are different from the majority members

Generalized other

the attitudes of the whole community

Linked lives

An aspect of the life-course sociology referring to our relationships with other people

Looking-glass self

how the self relies on imagined responses of others in its development

Pygmalion effect

when children develop according to expectations of a group or society


Refers to the motivation to help another person


groups with which we indentify

prosocial behavior

includes any behavior that benefits another person

social distance

how we become attached to other people

theory of group position

theory that prejudicial attitudes reflect a group's postition in society

cybernetic approach

the study of emotion that assumes that social conditions shape our emotions; and in turn, our emotions act to maintain social structures


thrill- seeking behaviors designed to produce intense emotions


the process of hyperrationality of the service workforce, or applying assembly-line techniques to interpersonal work

power-approach status

the study of emomtions based on the idea that human emotions result from real, anticipated, imagined, or recollected outcomes of social relations

primary emotions

physiologically grounded emotions that we inherit through evolutionary processes, including fear, anger, or sadness

procedure justice

in exchange theory, it is the beliefs about the fairness of tge methods used to make distributions

secondary emotions

emotions that derive from primary emotions when we attach varying meanings to primary emotions

socioemotional economy

a system for regulation emotional resources among people

sympathy account

the amount of sympathy that a person can expect from other people

theory of interaction ritual chains

theory that emphasizes the role of emotions in maintaining macrosociological institutions

scottish philosophers and american pragmaticism

The development of symbolic interactionism stems from which philosophical tradition or traditions?

Emile Durkheim; Karl Marx

Structural functionalism is associated with ________ while the conflict perspective is
associated with ________.

the availibility heuristic

When my judgement of whether someone is aggressive is determined by how many relevant instances of aggressive behavior I can recall, I am using _____ to make my judgment.

transient impressions

According to Affect Control Theory, temporary meanings in a situation that result from a specific behavioral event are called


A specific cognitive structure that contains and organizes information about a particular person, group, event, or object is called a

WEB DuBois

social theorists is most associated with studying racial prejudice in the United States?

La Pieres study

study that showed most people do not act on their prejudices and most people have some prejudices


Race, class and gender are all important elements of socialization

Charles Horton Cooley

Which social psychologist is associated with the looking-glass self?

step 4

At what step in the research process does the researcher actually go out and collect data?

social force

After Donna cheated on her most recent exam, she starts to feel a sense of guilt, making her
reconsider whether she wants to do it again. Donna's feelings of guilt can be considered a
_________ according to the social structure and personality perspective, leading her to rethink
her future behaviors.

social structure and personality

Which sociological social psychology perspective is likely to emphasize the importance of roles and
statuses in the study of social psychology?

C. Wright Mills

The sociological imagination is associated with which social theorists?

6-15 people

how many people are in focus groups?


begins at birth and continues through the life cycle


Individuals' attitudes are very strong predictors of their behavior.

in-group bias tendencies

Willer's research showing presidential approval ratings increasing after the 9/11 terrorist
attacks in the U.S. clearly showed

attitude; value.

Your evaluation of a new political candidate may best be described as a(n) ____ while your
overall political ideology may better be described as a(n) _____.

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