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56 terms

CHAPTER 16 AST-SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY

STUDY
PLAY
Another name for Zygomatic bone
Malar (part of the seven bones in the orbit)
Lateral rectus
rotates the eye away from the midline
A complete lack of cones leads
Color Blindness
Located within the upper eyelid near the outer angle of orbit
Lacrimal gland
A dilated segment of the nasal duct and narrows into the nasolacrimal duct, which empties into the inferior meatus of the nose
Lacrimal sac
The "Globe" which is ____
is the eyeball in its entirety
The external (outermost) tunic of the eye
Sclera
Uneven curvature of the cornea is called
Astigmatism
An instrinsic muscle consists of unstriped fibers form a grayish, semitransparent, circular band approximately 1/8 inch wide on the outer surface of the forward part of the choroid
Ciliary Body
Ciliary body alters the shape of the crystalline lens during _____, which is the ability to focus
Accomodation
Regulates the amount of light entering eye through pupil. The pupil allows for the transmission of light. Making the ____an instrinsic muscle.
Iris
Innermost tunic of the eye
Retina
Seeing shades of gray in dim light, seeing shapes or outlines
Rods
Provide color vision in bright light and enable the person to see sharp images.
Cones
What condition occurs when there are no cones present
Color Blindness
Crystalline lens, the opacity of this lens is referred to as a
cataract
The space bound anteriorly to the iris and posteriorly to the cornea.
Anterior Chamber
Anterior caviy is fille with _________, which helps to give the cornea its curved shape.
Aqueous humor
Is larger than the anterior cavity, occupies all of the space posteriority to the lens, and contains vitreous humor helps maintain sufficient pressure inside the eye to prevent the eyeball from collapsing.
Posterior Cavity
The space bound by the lens, ciliary body, and the suspensory ligaments
Posterior Chamber
Includes the cornea, aqueous and vitreous humor, and the lens
Refractive Media
Numerous conditions affect the opthalmic system. The most common affect is
Trauma
Caused by excess pressure of the aqueous humor and the leading cause of blindness
Glaucoma
Eye injuries that leave a dense white scar on the cornea, severe corneal infection that leads to corneal scarring (Keratoconus), corneal dysrophies, inherited disease of the cornea, and cataract or other eye surgery can prompt corneal clouding, these causes are conditions of ______
Clouding of the cornea
Is a wedge-shaped fibrovascular growth of conjunctiva that extends onto the cornea
Pterygium
An inflammation of the lacrial sace, is often caused by an obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct
Dacryocystitis
Is a misalignment or deviation of the eyes that normally work simultaneouslyto track visual objects. For both eyes to be synchronized in their movements and positions. They require about the same vision and accommodative (focusing) ability.
Strabismus
Is a small lump on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid. It is caused by an inflammatory reaction to material trapped inside an oil secreting gland (meibomian gland) in the eyelid
Chalazion
Why must powder gloves be removed?
Powder must be removed from gloves to prevent corneal irritation
What causes pupil dilation?
Mydriatics
What is used to replace vitreous humor?
Viscoat (sodium hyaluronate)
What causes pupil constricting?
Miotics
What is another name for Isopto Carpine? a miotic
pilocarpine hydrochloride
A retrobulbar injection is given behind the eyeball
Retrobulbar anesthesia
Used intraoperatively to irrigate the cornea
Balanced salt solution (BSS)
Balanced salt solution
Sterile
Physiologically balanced
Available on the sterile field
all the the above are samples of
Irrigating Solutions
Heating of body tissue for the purpose of coagulation or destruction with the use of radiation, electric current, and ultrasonic waves
Diathermy Apparatus
Involves the utilization of COLD temperature to seal tears and holes
Cryotherapy Unit
A cutting instrument used to make a circular cut, used during Keratoplasty to size the donor cornea and to remove the recipient cornea
Trephine
Instrument used to measure intraocular pressure within the SF
Tonometer
Generally more effective when performed on the vertically acting muscles
Strabismus Correction--RECESSION
Is a deviation of the position of the eye and the inability to direct both eyes on the same object
Strabismus
Commonly used for retinal detachments especially when there are no complicating factors
Sclera Buckle
Perfomed to establish a new pathway for tear drainage from the lacrimal sac to the middle meatus of the nose
Dacryocystorhinostomy
There are two types of strabismus correction, what are they_____. Which has the greater effect on the lateral rectus?____
Resection and Recession:
Resection
Removal of the entire eyeball
Enucleation
Reasons to performing an ________, it is indicated for excision of an eye due to malignant neoplask, penetrating wounds, or if the eye has been so extensively damged that no vision can be regained.
Enucleation
Are based during enucleation to provide a base of support for the artificial eye; spherical implants remain in use but in many instances they are being replaced by the hydroxyapatite implants; hydroxyapatite is a complex calcium phosphate and a naturally occurring body substance; this form of hydroxyapatite has a microstructure similar to cancellous bone with interconnecting channels.
Hydroxyapatite (ocular implants)
Another name for corneal transplant
Keratoplasty
Cornea is the anterior window to the eye it allows light into the eye and bends (refracts) the light rays to help the lens focus them upon the retina. Surgery to correct a cloudy cornea
Keratoplasty (corneal transplant)
Two methods cataract extraction are:
Intracapsular: involves a large incision. The lens is picked up for extraction with forceps, suction, or a cryoprobe. The ENTIRE capsule is removed.

Extracapsular: performed through a small incision and the lens is expressed or removed manually or by phacoemulsification. The phacoemulsification method uses ultrasonic energy to break up the lens: the lens material is irrigated and aspirated simultaneously. The posterior capsule remains. During this surgery, a superior rectus bridal suture is placed for manipulation and stabilization of the globe. An incision is made, either corneoscleral or corneal, which is self-sealing.
One method of removing an opaque lens
Phacoemulsification
Procedure to improve patients with myopia to improve vision
Radical Keratomy
Is a visual defect in which distant objects appear blurred
Myopia
A microsurgical procedure in which specialized microinstruments and techniques are used to repair retinal disorders. Requires the use of an ocutome, an instrustment with which vitreous is cut and aspirated; variable cut and aspiration rates are controlled from the main pane
Vitrectomy
Is a procedure performed to open blocked tear ducts. If left untreated could lead to Dacryocystitis, an inflammation of the lacrimal sac
Lacrimal duct dilation (probing)