81 terms

Merrill's Ch 8 - Vertebral Column

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forms the central axis of the skeleton and is centered in the midsagittal plane of the posterior part of the trunk
vertebral column or spine
List 4 functions of the vertebral column:
encloses and protects the spinal cord acts as a support for the trunk supports the skull superiorly provides for attachment for the deep muscles of the back and the ribs laterally
the upper limbs are supported indirectly via these
the ribs
the ribs articulate with this
the sternum
the sternum articulates with this
the shoulder girdle
the vertebral column articulates with these
each hipbone at the sacroiliac joints
the articulation that supports the vertebral column and transmits the weight of the trunk through the hip joints and to the lower limbs
the articulation of the vertebral column with the hipbones at the sacroiliac joints
small segments of bone that comprises the vertebral column
vertebrae
these are interposed between the vertebrae and act as cushions
disks of fibrocartilage
the vertebral column is held together by these
ligaments
the reason the vertebral column as considerable flexibility and resilience
because it is jointed and curved
The 5 vertebral regions
cervical thoracic lumbar sacral *coccygeal
the most superior seven vertebrae that occupy the region of the neck
cervical vertebrae
the 12 bones that lie in the dorsal, or posterior, portion of the thorax
thoracic vertebrae
the 5 vertebrae occupying the region of the loin
lumbar vertebrae
the 5 vertebrae located in the pelvic region
sacral vertebrae
the 3 to 5 terminal vertebrae located in the pelvic region
coccygeal vertebrae
the 24 segments in the upper three regions that remain distinct throughout life
true or movable vertebrae
the pelvic segments in the two lower regions that undergo a change in adults
false or fixed vertebrae
the sacral segments fuse together to form this bone
sacrum
the coccygeal segments fuse together to form this bone
coccyx
Name the 4 curves that arch anteriorly and posteriorly form the midcoronal plane of the body
cervical thoracic lumbar pelvic
the cervical and lumbar curves, which are convex anteriorly are called this
lordotic curves
the thoracic and pelvic curves, which are concave anteriorly are called this
kyphotic curves
an obtuse angle where the lumbar and pelvic curves join
lumbosacral angle
the thoracic and pelvic curves are called this because they are present at birth
primary curves
the cervical and lumbar curves are called this because they develop after birth
secondary or compensatory curves
when does the cervical curve develop?
when the child begins to hold the head up at about 3 or 4 months & begins to sit alone at about 8 or 9 months
when does the lumbar curve develop?
when the child begins to walk at about 1 to 1.5 yrs of age
what gender are the lumbar and pelvic curves more pronounced?
females
any abnormal increase in the anterior concavity of the thoracic curve is termed this
kyphosis
any abnormal increase in the anterior convexity of the lumbar or cervical curve is termed this
lordosis
an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
scoliosis
List the 2 main parts of a typical vertebra:
body vertebral arch
the vertebral body and arch enclose this space
vertebral foramen
this is formed by the articulated column of the vertebral foramina
vertebral canal
this covers the flattened superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral bodies
a thin plate of articular cartilage
the vertebral bodies are separated by these
intervertebral disks
intervertebral disks account for this much of the length of the vertebral column
one-fourth
a central mass of soft, pulpy, semigelatinous material contained in each intervertebral disk
nucleus pulposus
an outer fibrocartilaginous disk that surrounds the nucleus pulposus
annulus fibrosus
condition in which the pulpy nucleus ruptures or protrudes into the vertebral canal, impinging on a spinal nerve
herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) or slipped disk
herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) or slipped disk most often occurs in this region
lumbar region
this is formed by two pedicles and two laminae that support 4 articular processes, 2 transverse processes, and one spinous process
the vertebral arch
short, thick processes that project posteriorly, one from each side, from the superior and lateral parts of the posterior surface of the vertebral body
pedicles
the concavities at the superior and inferior surfaces of the pedicles
vertebral notches
the articulation with the vertebrae above and below the notches form this, which facilitates the transmission of spinal nerves and blood vessels
vertebral foramina
these are broad and flat and are directed posteriorly and medially from the pedicles
laminae
these project laterally and slightly posteriorly from the junction of the pedicles and laminae
transverse processes
this projects posteriorly and inferiorly from the junction of the laminae in the posterior midline
spinous process
a congenital defect of the vertebral column in which the laminae fail to unite posteriorly at the midline; in serious cases, the spinal cord may protrude from the affected individual's body
spina bifida
the articulating surfaces of the 4 articular processes that are covered with fibrocartilage
facets
the articulations between the articular processes of the vertebral arches
zygopophyseal joints or interarticular facet joints
the first cervical vertebra (C1)
atlas
this divides the ring formed by the arches of the first cervical vertebra into anterior and posterior portions
transverse atlantal ligament
the second cervical vertebra (C2)
axis
a strong conical process arising from the upper surface of the body of the second cervical vertebra that is received into the anterior portion of the altantal ring to act as the pivot or body for the atlas
the dens or odontoid process
the seventh cervical vertebra (C7)
vertebra prominens
Name the atypical cervical vertebrae:
atlas (C1) axis (C2) *vertebra prominens (C7)
the typical cervical vertebrae
C3 - C6
perforations in the transverse processes of C3 - C6 that facilitate the transmission of the vertebral artery and vein, and present a deep concavity on their upper surfaces for the passage of the spinal nerves
transverse foramina
All cervical vertebrae contain these 3 foramina:
the right and left transverse foramina and the vertebral foramen
these joints lie at right angles to the midsagittal plane and are clearly demonstrated in a lateral projection
the zygopopyseal facet joints of the second through seventh cervical vertebrae
short, thick columns of bone formed by the superior and inferior articular processes
articular pillars
the positioning rotation that is needed to view the intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine
45 degrees oblique (AP side up, PA side down)
the positioning rotation that is needed to view the zygopophyseal joints of the cervical spine
lateral
the positioning rotation that is needed to view the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine
lateral
the positioning rotation that is needed to view the zygopophyseal joints of the thoracic spine
70 degrees (AP side up, PA side down)
the positioning rotation that is needed to view the intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine
lateral
the positioning rotation that is needed to view the zygopophyseal joints of the lumbar spine
30 to 60 degrees (AP side down, PA side up)
the superior thoracic bodies resemble these
the cervical bodies
the inferior thoracic bodies resemble these
the lumbar bodies
these thoracic vertebrae are approximately triangular in form
the bodies of the typical thoracic vertebrae (T3 - T9)
these articulate with the heads of the ribs
costal facets
these vertebrae have large, bean-shaped bodies that increase in size from the first to the fifth vertebra in this region
lumbar vertebrae
the transverse processes of these vertebrae are smaller than those of the thoracic vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
a smoothly rounded projection on the back of each superior articular process
mamillary process
this process is located at the back of the root of the transverse process
accessory process
the part of the lamina between the superior and inferior articular processes is called this
pars interarticularis
a condition that is characterized by the anterior displacement of one vertebra over another, generally the fifth lumbar over the sacrum
spondylolisthesis
an acquired bony defect occurring in the pars interarticularis
spondylolysis
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