How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Biology 11.1+11.2

STUDY
PLAY
genetics
the key to understanding what makes each organism unique; the study of the passing on of traits from the parent to the offspring
gregor mendel
Austrian monk who discovered the concept of genetics; started work in the monastery garden
inheritance
something we each receive from our parents
fertilization
joining/fusing together of male and female to produce a new cell
true-breeding
self-pollinating; would produce an offspring identical to themselves
trait
a specific characteristic of an individual
cross pollination
the breeding of two plants to create a mixture offspring
hybrids
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
P-generation
Parental Generation
F1
Filial Generation ; offsprings of the P-generation
F2
offsprings of the F1; Second Filial Generation
genes
the factors that are passed from parent to offspring
allele
the different forms of a gene (dominant and recessive)
trait is controlled by a ______; a ______ is controlled by an allele
gene
principle of dominance
that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
homozygous dominant
(TT) when the alleles are both dominant
homozygous recessive
(tt) when the alleles are both recessive
heterozygous
(Tt) one dominant and one recessive allele
genotype
the genetic makeup; (Tt) or (tt) or (TT)
phenotype
the physical trait; short or tall
chance of the recessive gene appearing in the F2 generation
25%
segregation
separation of the dominant and recessive alleles during the formation of the gametes; this is random so it cannot be scientifically predicted
gametes
the sex cells
probability
the like hood that a particular event will occur; The larger number of offspring's, the closer the results will be to the predicted values
punnett square
a way to predict the outcome of a genetic cross; a simple diagram;
dihybrid
when two different genes are passed from the P to the F1
independent assortment
genes for different traits can segregate independently dying the formation of gametes
Mendel's Four Principles
1) Inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units called genes, which are passed from parents offspring
2) Where two or more forms of the gene for a single trait exist, some alleles may be dominant and others may be recessive
3) In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene, these genes segregate from each other when gametes are formed
4) Alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of each other