the key to understanding what makes each organism unique; the study of the passing on of traits from the parent to the offspring
Austrian monk who discovered the concept of genetics; started work in the monastery garden
something we each receive from our parents
joining/fusing together of male and female to produce a new cell
self-pollinating; would produce an offspring identical to themselves
a specific characteristic of an individual
the breeding of two plants to create a mixture offspring
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Filial Generation ; offsprings of the P-generation
offsprings of the F1; Second Filial Generation
the factors that are passed from parent to offspring
the different forms of a gene (dominant and recessive)
trait is controlled by a ______; a ______ is controlled by an allele
principle of dominance
that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
(TT) when the alleles are both dominant
(tt) when the alleles are both recessive
(Tt) one dominant and one recessive allele
the genetic makeup; (Tt) or (tt) or (TT)
the physical trait; short or tall
chance of the recessive gene appearing in the F2 generation
separation of the dominant and recessive alleles during the formation of the gametes; this is random so it cannot be scientifically predicted
the like hood that a particular event will occur; The larger number of offspring's, the closer the results will be to the predicted values
a way to predict the outcome of a genetic cross; a simple diagram;
when two different genes are passed from the P to the F1
genes for different traits can segregate independently dying the formation of gametes
Mendel's Four Principles
1) Inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units called genes, which are passed from parents offspring
2) Where two or more forms of the gene for a single trait exist, some alleles may be dominant and others may be recessive
3) In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene, these genes segregate from each other when gametes are formed
4) Alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of each other
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