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the key to understanding what makes each organism unique; the study of the passing on of traits from the parent to the offspring

gregor mendel

Austrian monk who discovered the concept of genetics; started work in the monastery garden


something we each receive from our parents


joining/fusing together of male and female to produce a new cell


self-pollinating; would produce an offspring identical to themselves


a specific characteristic of an individual

cross pollination

the breeding of two plants to create a mixture offspring


the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits


Parental Generation


Filial Generation ; offsprings of the P-generation


offsprings of the F1; Second Filial Generation


the factors that are passed from parent to offspring


the different forms of a gene (dominant and recessive)

trait is controlled by a ______; a ______ is controlled by an allele


principle of dominance

that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

homozygous dominant

(TT) when the alleles are both dominant

homozygous recessive

(tt) when the alleles are both recessive


(Tt) one dominant and one recessive allele


the genetic makeup; (Tt) or (tt) or (TT)


the physical trait; short or tall

chance of the recessive gene appearing in the F2 generation



separation of the dominant and recessive alleles during the formation of the gametes; this is random so it cannot be scientifically predicted


the sex cells


the like hood that a particular event will occur; The larger number of offspring's, the closer the results will be to the predicted values

punnett square

a way to predict the outcome of a genetic cross; a simple diagram;


when two different genes are passed from the P to the F1

independent assortment

genes for different traits can segregate independently dying the formation of gametes

Mendel's Four Principles

1) Inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units called genes, which are passed from parents offspring
2) Where two or more forms of the gene for a single trait exist, some alleles may be dominant and others may be recessive
3) In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene, these genes segregate from each other when gametes are formed
4) Alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of each other

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