Aphl Tsunami quiz
chapter 8 geol 155
Terms in this set (50)
A ____________ is an oscillating wave that sloshes back and forth within an enclosed body of waters such as a sea, bay, lake, or swimming pool.
Although the 2011 Japanese tsunami killed over 19,000 people, many more people would have likely died if not for _________________.
A) the tsunami warning system
B) the construction of high walls along much of the coastline
C) the construction of huge metal gates at the entrance to some harbors
D) all of the choices
An event similar to a tsunami that can occur in lakes due to avalanches, earthquakes, and other mechanisms is called a ____________________.
A tsunamic event can begin with a drawdown or retreat if the ____________________ of the wave arrives first.
causes of tsunamis
earthquake, volcanoes, landslide, seiches
Detailed mapping of the ocean bottom around the Hawaiian Islands revealed a previously unrecognized tsunami source. What did geologists discover on the seafloor in this area? (pg219)
slumps and debris avalanches formed by volcanic flank collapse
Earthquake-related tsunami are created by sub-sea fault movements with pronounced vertical offsets of the sea floor. Such movements occur most commonly along __________________.
Fault movement of the seafloor that generate large earthquakes may also cause powerful tsunami
earthquake caused tsunami
Geologists have shown that the east coast of the United States faces a serious tsunami threat from ________.
volcanic flank collapse in the Canary Islands
How tall a wave is depends on? (p207)
1) velocity of wind, 2) duration of time the wind blows, 3) length of water surface (fetch) then wind blows across, 4) consistency of wind direction
In 1868, the USS Wateree was carried several miles inland by a tsunami along the coast of ______.
In 1959, the water stored behind Hegben Lake Dam in Montana began to slosh violently back and forth in a series of oscillating waves. These seiches were caused by __________________.
a sudden drop of the lake bottom during an earthquake
In 1964, 12 people were killed during a tsunami at Crescent City, California. All of these fatalities were caused by the _______ wave, which was the highest in the series.
In the open ocean, tsunami can travel ________ miles per hour with periods up to _________ minutes.
In which of the following scenarios would tsunami tend to have the greatest destructive power?
A section of a coastline where there is a harbor and the bottom of the ocean bottom dips steeply.
Modern tsunami warning systems make use of _________________.
sea surface buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors only
Most of the 245,000 deaths from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami occurred in _______. (pg 215)
Most tsunami travel at speeds of ____________ miles per hour.
oscillating waves that slosh back and forth within an enclosed body of water.
Powerful tsunami are most frequently produced by _________.
Prior to the 2004 event, the last major tsunami in the Indian Ocean struck in 1883 and killed about 36,000 people. This tsunami was caused by _________________. (pg 215)
the collapse of Indonesia's Krakatoa volcano
The 1946 April Fool's Day tsunami at Hilo, Hawaii, was caused by an earthquake in ________. (217)
The 1964 tsunami that killed 12 people at Crescent City, California, was caused by a major earthquake in _______________.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed an estimated 245,000 people in ____ countries. (204) (13 in original text says 14)
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a magnitude 9.2 earthquake along __________ off the shore of Sumatra. (pg 215)
a subduction zone
The captain of a ship tells you that he once experienced a huge tsunami while sailing in the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles from any landmass. You decide that this sounds a little farfetched because __________________.
tsunami are rarely felt in deep water because they have long wavelengths and low heights
The deadly 1992 tsunami in Papua New Guinea was caused by ________.
an undersea landslide triggered by an earthquake
The destructive powers of tsunami result mainly from their ___________________.
momentum and long wavelength
The distance that the wind has traveled across open water
The great 1700 earthquake along the British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon coastline sent killer tsunami to ___________.
The great 1960 Chile earthquake (M 9.5) unleashed a tsunami that killed over 1,000 Chileans. These waves also killed 61 people in Hilo, Hawaii, 14 hours after the earthquake, and another 185 people in ________, 22.5 hours after the earthquake.
The great 1964 Alaska earthquake (M 9.2) set off a tsunami that killed 122 people along the state's sparsely populated coastline. This tsunami also killed 12 people in the state of _________.
The largest historic tsunami wave run-up ever recorded was caused by a massive rockfall into the water at ________________.
Lituya Bay, Alaska
The largest wave during a tsunami event is __________________.
unpredictable, it could be any of them
The Pacific Ocean has an average depth of about 5,500 meters, which yields a theoretical deep-ocean tsunami velocity of about _________ meters per second.
The result of the constructive and destructive interference of multiple sets of ocean waves (pg 208)
Tsunami are created by big "splashes" made in the deep ocean by all but which of the following?
Tsunami are deadly natural hazards that commonly are generated by _________________.
fault motion with vertical offset under the sea (during which there is vertical offset)
Tsunami are typically about _____ high in the open ocean, and 6-15 m high on reaching shallow water.
Tsunami arrive as a series of several waves separated by periods typically in the _________ range.
Tsunami is a Japanese word that means __________________. (pg 209)
Tsunami typically have ______ _____ _____ ___ relative to wind-blown waves.
periods and long wavelengths
Tsunami wavelengths can be as great as ____________.
True or False
country with the most detailed history of killer waves is China (pg 209)
True or False
earthquakes not only generated tsunami directly, but their energy can trigger the movement of large masses of rock or sand whose kinetic energy causes tsunami.
True or False
Most waves are created by frictional drag of wind blowing across the water surface
True or False
tsunamis most commonly created during earthquakes, more specifically subsea fault movements with pronounced vertical offsets of the seafloor that disturb the deep ocean water mass
various waves become briefly synchronized with their energies untied to form a spectacular tall wave (pg 208)
What are the causes of tsunami?
earthquake, volcanoes, mass movements, impacts and impacts, largest by rarest events impacts of high-velocity asteroids and comets
Which event produces the biggest tsunami?
Impacts of asteroids and comets