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this type of pronoun can introduce a dependent clause; Ex: that, what, which, who, whom, whose
whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever
introduce dependent clauses; Ex:after,although, as,as if,as soon as,as though, because,before, even if, even though,how if,in order that, once,why,since, so that,than,that,though,unless,
a type of clause that is a sentence fragment if left by itself because it does not make sense
a construction in which one or more words are omitted in the belief that they are understood; Ex:They also suggested we take a bag for our leftovers. (after suggested the word "that" is understood)
a noun or something acting as a noun which renames a preceding noun;must be enclosed in commas
nouns that act as a single unit so they have a singular verb(the group is...); but if the unit is identified it receives a plural verb(the men are..)
one in which the clause is needed to name the subject so it is not enclosed in commas
one in which the clause is not needed to name the subject since it is already named so it is enclosed in commas
used to connect independent clauses instead of using conjunctions; cannot separate 2 independent clauses with just a comma=r.o.s.
at the beginning of a sentence; has to have a comma after the phrase; can open a sentence in a prepositional phrase, adverb, or dependent(adverb) clause
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