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a type of sentence; has 1 independent clause


a type of sentence; has 2 independent clauses connected with a conjunction


a type of sentence; has 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses


a type of sentence; has 2 independent clauses and 1 or more dependent clauses


coordinating conjunctions; for, and, not, but, or, yet, so


this type of verb takes an object


this type of verb does not take an object

passive voice

subject is being acted upon; avoid this construction when writing

active voice

subject is acting

relative pronoun

this type of pronoun can introduce a dependent clause; Ex: that, what, which, who, whom, whose
whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever

adverb subordinator

introduce dependent clauses; Ex:after,although, as,as if,as soon as,as though, because,before, even if, even though,how if,in order that, once,why,since, so that,than,that,though,unless,
until,when,whenever,where,whereas,wherever, whether,while


a type of clause that can be a sentence on its own


a type of clause that is a sentence fragment if left by itself because it does not make sense


a verbal word/phrase that names something and acts as a noun ending in -ing

elliptical construction

a construction in which one or more words are omitted in the belief that they are understood; Ex:They also suggested we take a bag for our leftovers. (after suggested the word "that" is understood)


the pronoun that replaces the noun in a sentence


a noun or something acting as a noun which renames a preceding noun;must be enclosed in commas


nouns that act as a single unit so they have a singular verb(the group is...); but if the unit is identified it receives a plural verb(the men are..)

essential clause

one in which the clause is needed to name the subject so it is not enclosed in commas

non-essential clause

one in which the clause is not needed to name the subject since it is already named so it is enclosed in commas


used to connect independent clauses instead of using conjunctions; cannot separate 2 independent clauses with just a comma=r.o.s.


go outside of the quote; if it is the end of a sentence there is punctuation after it

introductory phrase

at the beginning of a sentence; has to have a comma after the phrase; can open a sentence in a prepositional phrase, adverb, or dependent(adverb) clause


a type of word/phrase that is enclosed by commas because it interjects; Ex: therefore,however,for example,of course,nevertheless,on one hand...)

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