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microbiology chapter 1
Terms in this set (52)
specialized area of biology that deals with living things too small to be seen without magnification
bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, helminths,viruses, algae.
The types of microorganisms include: (there's 7)
which of the microorganisms is acellular?
small, double membrane bound structures that perform specific functions within a cell
bacterial and archeal cells
both of these microorganisms are 10x smaller that eukaryotic cells and lack organelles
this type of microorganism isn't actually a microorganism, but is included in the study of infectious disease. they are transmitted like bacteria and the body responds to them as if they were bacteria.
medical, public health, immunology, industrial, agricultural, environmental
list the various branches of study of microbiology: (6)
study of bacteria (prokaryotes)
study of fungi
study of algae
study of protozoa
study of viruses
study of the immune system
If you study HIV, what sort of microbiologist would you be considered?
Which of the following is not considered a microbe?
rapid reproduction, large populations quickly
The advantages of studying microbes is:
they must be seen through indirect means
The disadvantages of studying microbes is:
oxygen, temperature control, protect plants/animals
How have microorganisms shaped the development of the earths habitat?
eukaryotes, bacteria and archea
what three types of cell arose from the last common ancestor (LCA)?
many are single celled, but many developed into highly complex multicellular organisms. large in size and a minority of the population when compared to bacteria.
last common ancestor
present or existing everywhere
where are microbes found?
theory of evolution
states that organisms change and develop over time to adapt an increase rate of survival
The Theory of Evolution is not widely accepted among scientists because it still remains unproven. (T/F)
gaseous nitrogen is unusable, but nitrogen is needed for synthesis or protiens/nucleic acids. nitrogen is harness by bacteria in the nodules of plants and nitrifying bacteria in soil converts ammonia (intermediate) into nitrates, which can be used by the body.
explain the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and how bacteria helps it.
Microbes are found everywhere on the planet except in the deeper layers of the earth's crust, which are largely considered to be sterile. (T/F)
bread, alcohol and cheese production, treatment of wounds, mining metals,
cleaning up human created contamination
Historical uses of microbes by humans include:
manipulating the genetics of organisms for the purpose of creating new products and genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
popular genetic engineering technique which includes transferring genetic material from one organism to another to deliberately alter their DNA
The use of microorganisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
microbes that cause disease. over 2,000 kinds and one of the leading causes of death worldwide.
a disease that was previously unknown or has recently begun spreading to a new region
infectious diseases that existed in the past but for a variety of reasons are increasing in incidence or in geographic range
yes. diseases like obesity and OCD have been linked to chronic infections w/ microbes
is there a link between non-infectious diseases and microbes?
weakened immune systems
patients with a _______ are subject to infections by common microbes that are not pathologic to healthy people
_______ microbes also contribute to an increase in infectious disease
an acellular organism composed of DNA/RNA surrounded by a protein coat. it is unable to live individually.
Diseases such as heart disease, gastric ulcers, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis have a microbial cause. (T/F)
Helminth, Protozoan, Bacterium, Virus
Place the organisms below in order from largest to smallest:
Which of these are acellular microbes?
first person to see microorganisms, coined the word "cells" in the 1660's
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
first person to accurately describe living microbes using a simple microscope.
development of life from preexisting life
development of life forms spontaneously from nonliving things (spontaneous generation)
disproved spontaneous generation of maggots with meat experiment
argued that contamination came from outside the container during his experiment (sealed and unsealed hay infusions)
officially disproved spontaneous generation with his swan neck flask experiment.
Found that some microbes in the dust and air have high heat resistance
Oliver Wendell Holmes
observed spread of diseases in healthcare facilities and published guidelines to reduce transmission
surgeon who promoted antiseptic technique, treated wounds with phenol (carbolic acid)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
micro ch 1&2 (someone else)
Microbiology but make it chemistry
microbiology ch 1 part 2
microbiology chapter 2
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